New Method Helps Track Stem Cells in Body

New Method Helps Track Stem Cells in Body

A detailed understanding of cellular interactions with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) is critical when their biomedical applications are considered. We demonstrate how photothermal microscopy can be used to follow the cellular uptake of SPIONs by direct imaging of the iron oxide core. This offers two important advantages when compared with current strategies employed to image magnetic cores: first, it is nondestructive and is therefore suitable for studies of live cells and, second, it offers a higher sensitivity and resolution, thus allowing for the identification of low levels of SPIONs within a precise subcellular location. We have shown that this technique may be applied to the imaging of both cell monolayers and cryosections. In the former we have demonstrated the role of temperature on the rate of endocytosis, while in the latter we have been able to identify cells labeled with SPIONs from a mixed population containing predominantly unlabeled cells. Direct imaging of the SPION core is of particular relevance for research involving clinically approved SPIONs, which do not contain fluorescent tags and therefore cannot be detected via fluorescence microscopy.

Researchers at the University have developed new methods to track stem cells and further understanding of what happens to them after they have been in the body for a significant period of time.

Stem cells are used to treat conditions such as leukaemia and have the potential to treat many more diseases and disorders where patient survival is reliant on organ and tissue donation. Currently, however, it is difficult for medics to establish whether stem cells have survived following transplantation in the body and if they reach their target site or migrate elsewhere.

In order to track stem cells in the body scientists use superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to ‘label’ the cells before they are administered into the patient. These particles can be picked up by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and help medics establish if the stem cells reach their intended target. Conditions within the body’s cells, however, can lead to the degradation of SPIONs and reduce the ability of MRI scans to pick up on their signal in the long-term.

Scientists at Liverpool are developing methods to visualise SPIONs in the cells before they enter the body to learn where the particles are going within the stem cell and help predict how they might perform once they are inside the body over a long period of time. They are using a photothermal technique, a unique optical imaging system, to improve SPION labelling so that particles survive for longer and have minimal impact on the function of the transplanted cells.

Effective monitoring

Dr Lara Bogart, from the University’s Institute of Integrative Biology, said: “Stem cells have the potential to replace and repair damaged tissue to preclude the need for a patient to wait for an organ or tissue transplant. Research is ongoing into how it could be used to treat a wide variety of diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease, and type one diabetes.

“In order to fully explore this potential, however, more technological developments are needed to understand how stem cells behave in the body after transplantation. If we can’t monitor stem cells effectively, it can have serious implications for patient health. Studies have already shown that if cells migrate to the circulatory system, beyond their target organ or tissue site, then it can cause inflammation in the body.

“Labelling stem cells is hugely valuable to tracking their movements in the body, but we need to know more about how the particles used interact with stem cells. Using new imaging systems we can work out their precise location in the cell and how they behave over time. We hope to use this information to improve understanding of the MRI signal that tracks SPIONs once stem cells have been transplanted.”

The research, supported by Engineering and Physical Research Council (EPSRC), is published in the journal, ACS Nano. The full article can be accessed here.

Stem cells continue to offer great potential for therapeutic use in a variety of diseases, but it’s been hard to track their effectiveness once injected. Knowing whether the stem cells made it to a target and have remained there long enough can go a long way in helping researchers study new stem cell therapies.

Researchers at the University of Liverpool have developed a photothermal microscopy technique for tracking a common stem cell marker, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), over an extended period of time.

stem cell tracking1 New Method Helps Track Stem Cells in Body

From the abstract of the study in ACS Nano:

A detailed understanding of cellular interactions with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) is critical when their biomedical applications are considered. We demonstrate how photothermal microscopy can be used to follow the cellular uptake of SPIONs by direct imaging of the iron oxide core. This offers two important advantages when compared with current strategies employed to image magnetic cores: first, it is nondestructive and is therefore suitable for studies of live cells and, second, it offers a higher sensitivity and resolution, thus allowing for the identification of low levels of SPIONs within a precise subcellular location. We have shown that this technique may be applied to the imaging of both cell monolayers and cryosections. In the former we have demonstrated the role of temperature on the rate of endocytosis, while in the latter we have been able to identify cells labeled with SPIONs from a mixed population containing predominantly unlabeled cells. Direct imaging of the SPION core is of particular relevance for research involving clinically approved SPIONs, which do not contain fluorescent tags and therefore cannot be detected via fluorescence microscopy.

Source : https://news.liv.ac.uk/2012/06/21/tracking-stem-cells-in-the-body/

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