Archive for ‘Endoscopic’

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Global Microbial Identification Market (Size Of $951.8 million in 2015) to Witness 6.0% CAGR during 2016 – 2022

Global Microbial Identification Market (Size Of $951.8 million in 2015) to Witness 6.0% CAGR during 2016 – 2022

MRRBIZ158

 

MarketResearchReports.biz has recently announced the addition of a market study “ Global Microbial Identification System Market Research Report 2016 ”, is a comparative analysis of the global market.

Notes:

Production, means the output of Microbial Identification System

Revenue, means the sales value of Microbial Identification System

This report studies Microbial Identification System in Global market, especially in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with capacity, production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering

BD

Merck Millipore

PZ Cormay

Hangzhou Tailin Bioengineering Equipments

Advanced Instruments Inc

Market Segment by Regions, this report splits Global into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue, market share and growth rate of Microbial Identification System in these regions, from 2011 to 2021 (forecast), like

North America

Europe

China

Japan

Southeast Asia

India

Split by product type, with production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, can be divided into

Identification Method Based on Genotype

Phenotype Based Identification Method

Protein Based Identification Method

Split by application, this report focuses on consumption, market share and growth rate of Microbial Identification System in each application, can be divided into

Hospital

Laboratory

Download The sample Copy Of This Report:http://www.marketresearchreports.biz/sample/sample/903292

Table Of Content

Global Microbial Identification System Market Research Report 2016

1 Microbial Identification System Market Overview

1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Microbial Identification System

1.2 Microbial Identification System Segment by Type

1.2.1 Global Production Market Share of Microbial Identification System by Type in 2015

1.2.2 Identification Method Based on Genotype

1.2.3 Phenotype Based Identification Method

1.2.4 Protein Based Identification Method

1.3 Microbial Identification System Segment by Application

1.3.1 Microbial Identification System Consumption Market Share by Application in 2015

1.3.2 Hospital

1.3.3 Laboratory

1.4 Microbial Identification System Market by Region

1.4.1 North America Status and Prospect (2011-2021)

1.4.2 Europe Status and Prospect (2011-2021)

1.4.3 China Status and Prospect (2011-2021)

1.4.4 Japan Status and Prospect (2011-2021)

1.4.5 Southeast Asia Status and Prospect (2011-2021)

1.4.6 India Status and Prospect (2011-2021)

1.5 Global Market Size (Value) of Microbial Identification System (2011-2021)

2 Global Microbial Identification System Market Competition by Manufacturers

2.1 Global Microbial Identification System Capacity, Production and Share by Manufacturers (2015 and 2016)

2.2 Global Microbial Identification System Revenue and Share by Manufacturers (2015 and 2016)

2.3 Global Microbial Identification System Average Price by Manufacturers (2015 and 2016)

2.4 Manufacturers Microbial Identification System Manufacturing Base Distribution, Sales Area and Product Type

2.5 Microbial Identification System Market Competitive Situation and Trends

2.5.1 Microbial Identification System Market Concentration Rate

2.5.2 Microbial Identification System Market Share of Top 3 and Top 5 Manufacturers

2.5.3 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion

3 Global Microbial Identification System Capacity, Production, Revenue (Value) by Region (2011-2016)

3.1 Global Microbial Identification System Capacity and Market Share by Region (2011-2016)

3.2 Global Microbial Identification System Production and Market Share by Region (2011-2016)

3.3 Global Microbial Identification System Revenue (Value) and Market Share by Region (2011-2016)

3.4 Global Microbial Identification System Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)

3.5 North America Microbial Identification System Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)

3.6 Europe Microbial Identification System Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)

3.7 China Microbial Identification System Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)

3.8 Japan Microbial Identification System Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)

3.9 Southeast Asia Microbial Identification System Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)

3.10 India Microbial Identification System Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016)

4 Global Microbial Identification System Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)

4.1 Global Microbial Identification System Consumption by Regions (2011-2016)

4.2 North America Microbial Identification System Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)

4.3 Europe Microbial Identification System Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)

4.4 China Microbial Identification System Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)

4.5 Japan Microbial Identification System Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)

4.6 Southeast Asia Microbial Identification System Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)

4.7 India Microbial Identification System Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2016)

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Global CT Scan Test Phantom Market Trends Forecast Analysis by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application to 2021

Global CT Scan Test Phantom Market Trends Forecast Analysis by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application to 2021

NS

 

The Global CT Scan Test Phantom Market research study report is a respected source of information which offers a telescopic view of the current market status. Various key factors are discussed in the report, which will help the buyer in studying the Global CT Scan Test Phantom market trends and opportunities. The Global CT Scan Test Phantom market is a highly diligent study on competitive landscape analysis, prime manufacturers, marketing strategies analysis, Market Effect Factor Analysis and Consumer Needs by major regions, types, applications in Global market considering the past, current and future state of the Global CT Scan Test Phantom industry. The report provides a thorough overview of the Global CT Scan Test Phantom Market including definitions, classifications, applications and chain structure.

This Research study focus on these types: –

  • For Tomography
  • For Radiography
  • For Ultrasound Imaging
  • For Radiation Therapy
  • Other

This Research study focus on these applications: –

  • Adult
  • Pediatric

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This report studies Interferons in Global market, especially in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with Production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering

  • Gammex
  • Capintec
  • CIRS
  • Fluke Biomedical
  • Carville
  • IBA Dosimetry
  • Modus Medical Devices

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Several important areas are covered in this Global CT Scan Test Phantom market research report. Some key points among them: –

  1. What Overview Global CT Scan Test Phantom Says? This Overview Includes Diligent Analysis of Scope, Types, Application, Sales by region, manufacturers, types and applications
  2. What Is Global CT Scan Test Phantom Competition considering Manufacturers, Types and Application? Based on Thorough Research of Key Factors
  3. Who Are Global CT Scan Test Phantom Global Key Manufacturers? Along with this survey you also get their Product Information (Type, Application and Specification)
  4. Global CT Scan Test Phantom’s Manufacturing Cost Analysis –This Analysis is done by considering these prime elements like Key RAW Materials, Price Trends, Market Concentration Rate of Raw Materials, Proportion of Raw Materials and Labour Cost in Manufacturing Cost Structure
  5. Global CT Scan Test Phantom Industrial Chain Analysis
  6. Global CT Scan Test Phantom Marketing strategies analysis by
  7. Market Positioning
  8. Pricing and Branding Strategy
  9. Client Targeting
  10. Global CT Scan Test Phantom Effect Factor Analysis
  11. Technology Process/Risk Considering Substitute Threat and Technology Progress In Global CT Scan Test Phantom Industry
  12. Consumer Needs or What Change Is Observed in Preference of Customer
  13. Political/Economical Change
  14. What is Global CT Scan Test Phantom forecast (2016-2021) Considering Sales, Revenue for Regions, Types and Applications?

Topics such as sales and sales revenue overview, production market share by product type, capacity and production overview, import, export, and consumption are covered under the development trend section of the Global CT Scan Test Phantom market report.

Lastly, the feasibility analysis of new project investment is done in the report, which consist of a detailed SWOT analysis of the Global CT Scan Test Phantom market. Both established and new players in the Global CT Scan Test Phantom industry can use this report for complete understanding of the market.

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Some of key Tables and Figures included in this research study: –

  1. Figure Picture of Global CT Scan Test Phantom
  2. Figure USA, Europe, China. Southeast Asia, India, Japan Global CT Scan Test Phantom Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021)
  3. Table Production Base and Market Concentration Rate of Raw Material
  4. Figure Manufacturing Cost Structure of Global CT Scan Test Phantom
  5. Figure Manufacturing Process Analysis of Global CT Scan Test Phantom
  6. Figure Global CT Scan Test Phantom Industrial Chain Analysis
  7. Figure Global CT Scan Test Phantom Sales and Growth Rate Forecast (2016-2021)
  8. Figure Global CT Scan Test Phantom Revenue and Growth Rate Forecast (2016-2021)
  9. Table Global CT Scan Test Phantom Sales Forecast by Regions (2016-2021)
  10. Table Global CT Scan Test Phantom Sales Forecast by Type (2016-2021)
  11. Table Global CT Scan Test Phantom Sales Forecast by Application (2016-2021)

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Electronic Skin and Hair Mimic How We Feel Things and Environment Around Us

Electronic Skin and Hair Mimic How We Feel Things and Environment Around Us

sensor-skin

 

hair-sensor

 

Researchers at the Harbin Institute of Technology have developed an extremely sensitive tactile sensor that mimics how our hair and skin work together to feel touch, the movement of air, and different textures of objects we come in contact with. The technology may one day be integrated into prosthetic devices that will allow amputees to regain a sense of touch.

The technology relies on combining flexible and stretchable electronic skin with cobalt microwires. The microwires are coated in glass and the tips are placed within artificial silicon-rubber skin. The combination device allows it to feel anything from a slight breeze or a fly landing on it, to weights up to 10 lbs (~5kg) being placed on top. Additionally, the same sensor is able to distinguish lateral slip and friction forces, a particularly useful feature that would be beneficial for robotic fingers holding onto tools and utensils.

Here’s a video from the American Chemical Society discussing the new sensing system:

https://youtu.be/g6c-MLuMrEUGE-OEC-Elite-Venue-40

Study in ACS Applied Materials & InterfacesBiomimic Hairy Skin Tactile Sensor Based on Ferromagnetic Microwires…

Via: American Chemical Society

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GORE EXCLUDER AAA Endoprosthesis receives CE Mark

GORE EXCLUDER AAA Endoprosthesis receives CE Mark

W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. (Gore) has received CE Mark (Conformité Européenne) for the new large diameter 35 mm trunk-ipsilateral leg and 36 mm aortic extender components of the GORE® EXCLUDER® AAA Endoprosthesis. The new components provide physicians with a proven and durable endovascular option to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in patients with an infrarenal aortic inner neck diameter range of 30 to 32 mm, which expands the overall treatment range to 19-32 mm.

The new large diameter components represent the first products in Gore’s innovative portfolio to reduce access vessel requirements. Compatible with an 18 Fr GORE® DrySeal Sheath, the new 35 mm trunk-ipsilateral leg and 36 mm aortic extender represent one of the lowest profiles for treating infrarenal aortic necks measuring up to 32 mm in diameter.

“Having a wide range of sizing options available for various anatomies simplifies the decision making for interventionalists. This new size allows more patients with large aortic neck diameters to benefit from endovascular treatment,” said Dr. Mo Hamady, Consultant Interventional Radiologist at St. Mary’s Hospital, London.

The GORE EXCLUDER AAA Endoprosthesis is an endovascular stent-graft that seals off the aneurysm and creates a new path for blood flow. The device is inserted through a small incision in the patient’s leg using a catheter-based delivery technique. Once the physician has positioned the graft in the diseased aorta, the GORE® C3® Delivery System uniquely and intuitively enables repositioning of the stent-graft. The ability to reposition the device may minimize complications that could occur if the graft needs to be moved after the initial deployment.

“By expanding our sizing options to include larger anatomies, Gore now offers a complete range of sizes to treat differing anatomies with the preferred infrarenal placement,” said Ryan Takeuchi, Gore Aortic Business Leader. “Gore strives to provide superior performance through design. Our extended AAA sizing portfolio and innovative delivery solution simplifies the EVAR procedure for physicians and patients alike.”

Source : http://www.news-medical.net/news/20121203/GORE-EXCLUDER-AAA-Endoprosthesis-receives-CE-Mark.aspx

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TEFI Endoscopic Technology Watches Changes in Retina

TEFI Endoscopic Technology Watches Changes in Retina

TEFI Endoscopic Technology Watches Changes in Retina

The monitoring and treatment of eye diseases that may cause blindness has taken a big leap forward, thanks to a new imaging technique that takes high quality colour photographs of the whole retina.

Using the new technique called ‘TEFI’ (Topical Endoscopic Fundal Imaging), Professor Andrew Dick, David Copland and the team from the University of Bristol’s Academic Unit of Ophthalmology, monitored changes in mice retina over time, without distress to the animals or the need for anesthesia.

The study focused on a condition in mice similar to human posterior uveitis, an inflammation that affects the back of the eye and which can be difficult to monitor using existing techniques. TEFI allowed the researchers to see changes to the eye that were previously undetectable.

“TEFI enhances our monitoring of clinical disease in a rapid and non-invasive fashion,” Copland said. “It will aid in the design of experimental protocols according to clinical observations.”

Professor Dick added: “Combined TEFI and histological methods enable the observation of clinical features and severity of disease, but information regarding the dynamics, phenotype, function and quantity of cellular traffic through the eye is only provided through detailed analysis of cell populations present in the eye at various stages of disease progression.”

The study, “The Clinical Time-Course of Experimental Autoimmune Uveoretinitis Using Topical Endoscopic Fundal Imaging with Histologic and Cellular Infiltrate Correlation,” was published this week in Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. It featured the use of Topical Endoscopic Fundal Imaging (TEFI), a technique that uses an endoscope with parallel illumination and observation channels connected to a digital camera.

purpose. EAU is an established preclinical model for assessment of immunotherapeutic efficacy toward translation of therapy for posterior uveitis. Reliable screening of clinical features that correlate with underlying retinal changes and damage has not been possible to date. This study was undertaken to describe, validate, and correlate topical endoscopic fundus imaging (TEFI) with histologic features of murine experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU), with the intent of generating a rapid noninvasive panretinal assessment of ocular inflammation.

methods. EAU was induced in B10.RIII mice by immunization with the peptide RBP-3161-180. The clinical disease course (days 0–63) was monitored and documented using TEFI. Disease severity and pathology were confirmed at various time points by histologic assessment. The composition of the cell infiltrate was also examined and enumerated by flow cytometry.

results. TEFI demonstrated the hallmark features of EAU, paralleling many of the clinical features of human uveitis, and closely aligned with underlying histologic changes, the severity of which correlated significantly with the number of infiltrating retinal leukocytes. Leukocytic infiltration occurred before manifestation of clinical disease and clinically fulminant disease, as well as cell infiltrate, resolved faster than histologic scores. During the resolution phase, neither the clinical appearance nor number of infiltrating retinal leukocytes returned to predisease levels.

conclusions. In EAU, there is a strong correlation between histologic severity and the number of infiltrating leukocytes into the retina. TEFI enhances the monitoring of clinical disease in a rapid and noninvasive fashion. Full assessment of preclinical immunotherapeutic efficacy requires the use of all three parameters: TEFI, histologic assessment, and flow cytometric analysis of retinal infiltrate.

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Introduction

Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) is a suitable correlate to the spectrum of clinicopathologic features of human uveitides and, as a result, is a successful preclinical model for translation of immunotherapies.1 2 Furthermore, the model serves to dissect immunopathogenic mechanisms relating to immune-mediated tissue damage, which in turn highlight avenues for future immunotherapies.3 4 5 6 Murine EAU is generated after systemic activation of ocular-specific CD4+ T cells that are frequently located within or around photoreceptor segments.7 8 9 10 11 In particular, EAU can be induced via administration of dominant peptides from retinoid binding protein (RBP)-3 (previously called interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein [IRBP]) in an appropriate adjuvant.12 Disease occurs subsequent to T cell infiltration into the target organ that recruits and activates macrophages into the eye, generating structural damage via mechanisms including secretion of nitric oxide (NO).13

To quantify the extent and severity of disease, which is clearly essential for validating the efficacy of preclinical therapies, two approaches have been used to date: nonvalidated clinical scoring and semiquantitative histologic scoring and grading. Clinical EAU assessment involves in vivo examination of the eye using indirect slit lamp biomicroscopy and scoring the features of retinal, anterior chamber, and pupil appearance during disease.11 In this regard, fundus photography has until now been limited by technical difficulties and the poor resolution of existing techniques for disease assessment.14 Immunohistochemical assessment of retinal sections, with grading according to the degree of inflammatory infiltrate and structural damage, has been used for assessment of disease severity,15 but this technique has inherent limitations, such as the fact that only a small proportion of the whole retina can be examined. Therefore, a new easy-to-use imaging system that facilitates rapid, reproducible, live clinical assessment of the whole fundus, closely correlating with histologic changes is required as an approach to monitor progression of retinal disease in experimental models, including EAU.

Topical endoscopic fundus imaging (TEFI) is a recently described compact system that allows high-resolution in vivo color photography of the retina in rodents and was developed in normal eyes of mice.16 TEFI is based on the use of an endoscope with parallel, lateral, crescent-shaped illumination connected to a digital camera. This technique facilitates rapid assessment and capture of high-quality images of the whole fundus, including the peripheral retina and ciliary body, without distress to the mouse or the requirement for general anesthesia.

The objectives of this study were to validate a platform by using the TEFI system for assessment of the clinical disease time course of RBP-3161-180–induced EAU in B10.RIII mice, and correlate clinical features to both matched published histologic severity scores and the extent of inflammatory retinal cell infiltrate determined by flow cytometric analysis.

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Materials and Methods

Mice

B10.RIII mice were originally obtained from Harlan UK, Ltd. (Oxford, UK) and a breeding colony established within the Animal Services Unit at Bristol University (Bristol, UK). All mice were housed in specific pathogen-free conditions with continuously available food and water. Female mice, immunized for disease induction, were aged between 6 and 8 weeks. Treatment of animals conformed to UK legislation and to the ARVO Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research.

Reagents

The peptide RBP-3161-180 (SGIPYIISYLHPGNTILHVD) was synthesized by Sigma-Genosys Ltd. (Poole, UK). Peptide purity was >95% as determined by HPLC.

EAU Induction and Scoring

B10.RIII mice were immunized SC in one flank with 50 ?g/mouse RBP-3161-180 peptide in PBS (2% DMSO), in Complete Freud’s Adjuvant (CFA; 1 mg/mL; 1:1 vol/vol) supplemented with 1.5 mg/mL Mycobacterium tuberculosis complete H37 Ra (BD Biosciences, Oxford, UK), and 1.5 ?g Bordetella pertussis toxin (Sigma-Aldrich, Poole, UK) was given intraperitoneally. At various time points after immunization, the eyes were enucleated, oriented in optimal cutting temperature (OCT) compound (R. Lamb Ltd., East Sussex, UK), and carefully snap frozen. Serial 12-?m sections were cut and stored at -80°, before thawing at room temperature and fixation in acetone for 10 minutes. Sections were stained with rat anti-mouse CD45 monoclonal antibody (Serotec, Oxford, UK), counterstained with hematoxylin (ThermoShandon, Pittsburgh, PA), and then scored for inflammatory infiltrate (presence of CD45-positive cells) and structural disease (disruption of morphology). Cellular infiltrate was scored within the ciliary body, vitreous, vessels, rod outer segments, and choroid, whereas structural disease was scored within the rod outer segments, neuronal layers, and retinal morphology. Both scores were added together to calculate a final disease total (Table 1) .

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Table 1.

Summary of EAU Disease Scoring

Topical Endoscope Fundus Imaging

Using a method adapted from Paques et al.,16 we connected an endoscope with a 5-cm-long tele-otoscope with a 3-mm outer diameter (1218AA; Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) a digital camera (D80 with a 10-million-pixel charge-coupled device [CCD] image sensor and AF 85/F1.8 D objective (Nikkor; all from Nikon, Tokyo, Japan), with a additional +4.00-D magnifying lens. The settings of the camera were as follows: large and superfine image, manual focus; operating mode S (shutter speed priority), shutter set at 1/100 s, and white balance set at fluorescent. A xenon lamp (201315-20; Karl Storz) connected through a flexible optic fiber to the endoscope was used as the light source.

The pupils of the mice were dilated with topical tropicamide 1% and phenylephrine 2.5% (Minims; Chauvin Pharmaceuticals, Romford, UK), then topical oxybuprocaine 0.4% (Minims) and eye gel (Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Camberley, UK), were applied for corneal anesthesia and endoscope contact, respectively. For imaging, the camera with endoscope was attached to a bench-clamp, and the mouse was slowly moved toward the tip of the endoscope. Once contact with the gel covering the cornea was obtained, focus and illumination were adjusted by using the camera, and the fundus was examined and the image was captured. Images were transferred to computer for processing (Photoshop; Adobe Systems, Mountain View, CA). Images were cropped to a size of 6 × 4.85 in. The blue curves tool was used to render the image a natural color. We did not use RAW imaging, as no image manipulation (other than color adjustment) was required. We found that the superfine setting was more than adequate for our purposes and each image was around 3 MB in size. After numerous trials, we found that using the fluorescent light white balance setting generated the best image detail after further blue curve adjustment in the image analysis software.

Isolation of Retinal Infiltrating Cells

Infiltrating retinal cells were isolated by using a previously described method.17 In brief, the eyes were enucleated and the retinas (including the ciliary body) of each animal were dissected microscopically and washed in wash media (complete RPMI supplemented with 10% [vol/vol] FCS and 1 mM HEPES; all from Invitrogen, Paisley, UK). Retinas were then cut into small pieces and digested in 1 mL wash medium, supplemented with 0.5 mg/mL collagenase D (Roche, Welwyn Garden City, UK) and 750 U/mL DNase I (Sigma-Aldrich) for 20 minutes at 37°C. An additional 0.5 mg/mL collagenase D and DNase 750 U/mL was added before incubation for a further 10 minutes at 37°C. Cell suspensions were forced through a 40-?m cell strainer (BD-Falcon, Cambridge, UK), with a syringe plunger, and the cell suspensions were stained for flow cytometric analysis.

Flow Cytometry

The cell suspensions were incubated with 24G2 cell supernatant for 5 minutes at 4°C. For cell counting, retinal cell suspensions were stained with PE-Cy5-conjugated anti-mouse CD4 monoclonal antibody (mAb), APC-Cy7-conjugated anti-mouse CD11b mAb, and PE-Cy7-conjugated anti-mouse CD45 mAb (all BD Pharmingen, Oxford, UK), at 4°C for 20 minutes. Cell suspensions were acquired with a flow cytometer (LSR-II; BD Cytometry Systems, Oxford, UK). Analysis was then performed (FlowJo software; TreeStar, San Carlos, CA). The number of cells counted was calculated by reference to a known standard.

Statistical Analyses

Partial correlation was performed (SPSS Inc, ver. 14; SPSS, Chicago, IL) and used to explore the relationship between the number of CD45+ cells (after square root transformation) and histologic score, while controlling for time (days) after immunization.

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Results

TEFI Imaging of the Retina during EAU

TEFI is a system that allows high resolution in vivo color photography of the retina in rodents and was developed in the normal eyes of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.16 We found that high-quality panretinal images, with clear visualization of the peripheral retina could also be obtained in the B10.RIII mouse strain, when the pupil was suitably dilated. The optimal pupil dilation was achieved by using a drop combination of phenylephrine 2.5% and tropicamide 1%, instilled at least 5 minutes before initiating TEFI.

Using this adapted TEFI method, we sought to monitor the clinical changes in the retina that occur during disease progression in mice immunized for EAU. We used the highly susceptible B10.RIII mouse strain, in which the immunizing regimen generates reliable disease induction and consistent moderate disease severity in our hands, thus ensuring that any clinical changes to the retina would be clearly evident.

Mice were immunized SC with 50 ?g RBP-3161-180 emulsified in CFA, and pertussis toxin was coadministered intraperitoneally. In the initial experiment, 10 mice were immunized and the disease progression was monitored from days 0 to 63. The TEFI method enabled us to capture a variety of clinical images (Fig. 1) . Clinical features of EAU were clearly observed, including vasculitis and optic nerve swelling (Fig. 1A) ; exudative retinal detachment (Fig. 1B) ; retinal folds, observed as retinal flecks (Fig. 1E) ; and choroidal lesions, analogous to chorioretinal lesions in uveitis in humans (Fig. 1F) . The periphery of the retina could also be visualized, demonstrating the anatomy of the ciliary body and the drainage angle (Figs. 1C 1D) . Figure 1D demonstrates how we were able to increase the magnification of views of the ciliary body and drainage angle by virtue of imaging through the mouse lens.

Figure 1.

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Figure 1.

Clinical observations of EAU in B10.RIII mice using topical endoscopic fundus imaging. Shown are examples of clinical disease observed in a representative cohort of B10.RIII mice immunized for EAU using RBP-3161-180 in CFA. Images show raised and swollen optic nerve, with typical perivascular cuffing and caliber changes to vessels (arrowhead, A), and an inferior exudative retinal detachment (B), at day 20 pi. Images including the ciliary body demonstrate peripheral chorioretinal inflammation and inflammatory vascular changes of the marginal vein (C, D). Scattered flecks which correlate to histologic features of retinal folds, are typically observed after day 15 pi (E). Multiple choroidal lesions (arrowhead) associated with inflammatory vascular changes (perivascular cuffing) and swollen optic nerve persisted at day 28 pi (F).

The time-course of EAU in the right eye of a representative individual mouse demonstrates the significant changes that occurred during disease progression (Fig. 2) . The retina and vasculature remained normal in appearance, with no clinical evidence of disease from day 0 to 10 postimmunization (pi). However, by day 13 pi, we recorded swelling of the optic nerve that increased in severity to include the central retinal vasculature (analogous to retinal vasculitis in humans). With time (days 14–18 pi), vitritis (cellular infiltrate within the vitreous gel) made the fundus increasingly indistinct (vitreous haze). Despite this vitreous haze, large exudative retinal detachments were documented from day 17 pi onward and resolved after day 21 pi. From day 15 pi onward, white retinal flecks were observed uniformly throughout the retina, which are presumed to be clinical evidence of small retinal folds (described later). Accompanying resolution of the exudative detachments was clinical resolution of features of retinal vessel involvement (vasculitis) and optic nerve swelling. Over the time period examined, the retina did not regain its normal appearance, as clinical images from day 28 pi onward demonstrated persistence of retinal flecks throughout the resolution phase and up to and including day 63 pi. Examination of the contralateral eye in selected mice verified that there was similar clinical appearance between eyes at all time points (data not shown).

Figure 2.

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Figure 2.

Clinical features during the study time course in a B10.RIII mouse immunized for EAU. At each time point from days 10 to 63 pi, the right eyes were dilated and photographed.

Comparison of TEFI, Histologic Features, and Composite of Cellular Infiltrate during EAU

Given the relative ease and reproducibility of TEFI when used to monitor disease in immunized mice, we wanted to determine whether clinical features would correlate with histologic changes and the kinetics of cellular infiltrate.

We immunized 40 B10.RIII mice, and on days 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 63 pi, TEFI images of the right eye were obtained from four mice at each time point (three mice on days 42 and 63) before death. The right eyes were enucleated and sections prepared for immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD45 antibody. Three sections per retina per time point were scored for inflammatory infiltrate and structural damage, as described previously (Table 1) .

Figure 3 shows our findings as a representative comparison of TEFI and histology images taken from the same eye. Observations from days 0 to 12 pi demonstrated a normal retinal appearance by TEFI, which was confirmed histologically in sections that displayed normal morphology and no inflammatory infiltrate. By days 13 and 14 pi, clinical changes that included a raised appearance of the optic nerve were observed in 75% of the mice, although at this stage there was no clinical or histologic evidence of altered retinal morphology. The increase in histologic disease score was secondary to infiltrate that arose at the ciliary body and scleral–choroidal interface in that area (Fig. 3 , inset).

Figure 3.

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Figure 3.

Comparison of clinical and histologic images during the EAU time course. Forty female B10.RIII mice were immunized for EAU using RBP-3161-180 in CFA. At the days after immunization indicated, clinical images were obtained before the mice were killed. The right eyes were enucleated, sectioned, and stained for CD45+ infiltrate. A 12-?m retinal section from the right eye with total disease score is shown next to the corresponding clinical image from the right eye at each day, representative of each group (n = 4). Histology images from days 13 and 14 include insets showing the ciliary body–ciliary marginal zone and surrounding CD45+ perivascular infiltrate.

From days 15 to 19 pi, exudative retinal detachments and signs of cellular infiltrate (white lesions) and perivascular sheathing (vasculitis) were evident in all (100%) animals examined at these times. Where severe vitritis in the mice prevented clear visualization of the retina, histologic assessment confirmed the characteristics of clinical disease. This result correlates with extensive retinal disruption and folding, vasculitis, and perivascular infiltrate associated with increased CD45+ infiltrate observed by histology. However, by day 21 pi, retinal detachments were reduced clinically, whereas perivascular infiltrate persisted and by histology, both infiltrate and retinal morphologic disruption remained clearly evident. The overall clinical appearance improved from days 28 to 63 pi in all (100%) animals, with reduced inflammation of the optic nerve and retina (as observed as reduced optic nerve head swelling, reduced perivascular infiltrate and reduced creamy chorioretinal deep presumed infiltrative lesion), although during the resolution phase (postpeak disease), white, worm-like retinal flecks persisted. Histologic assessment of the eyes, corroborated such findings and demonstrated markedly reduced infiltrate, but persistent small retinal folds, likely to represent flecks observed by TEFI, were still apparent. Such folds are similar to those previously documented in other models.18

Analysis of the inflammatory infiltrate and structural scores throughout the time course by histology exhibited the classic monophasic disease course of EAU in B10.RIII mice (Fig. 4A) . From days 12 to 14 pi, increased levels of CD45+ cell infiltrate were detected, while little or no structural damage was observed within the retina. Disease progressed from day 15 pi onward, with a peak of disease at day 19 pi, as reflected by high scores for inflammatory infiltrate and associated structural damage. The period from day 21 pi onward is often termed the resolution phase, and although disease scores are reduced, morphologic changes (structural damage) and CD45+ cellular infiltration persists through to day 63 pi. Although this infers a level of regulation and repair, neither the number of CD45+ cells nor retinal morphology returned to normal predisease levels.

Figure 4.

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Figure 4.

Comparison of histologic scores and retinal cellular infiltrate during the EAU time course. (A) Right eyes were enucleated at the post immunization day indicated. Eyes were snap frozen before cryosectioning and staining for immunohistochemical analysis of CD45+ infiltrate. Average disease score ± SD of inflammatory infiltrate and structural disease is shown (n = 4/time point). Histology demonstrated that the EAU was a monophasic disease that peaked at day 19 pi, but did not fully resolve or return to normal levels. (B) Left eyes were simultaneously enucleated at each time point, and the retina and ciliary body excised and digested with collagenase. The number of immune cells per eye was measured by flow cytometry. The total number of immune cells is detailed as follows: CD45+CD11b+ (CD11b), CD45+CD4+ (CD4), and CD45+CD11b-CD4- (CD45) (n = 4/time point). Elevated levels of retinal infiltrate were observed from day 12 pi, with an expansion of CD45+ cells including macrophages and T cells seen from day 15 pi, peaking at day 18 pi. From days 19 to 21 pi, the level of infiltrate was reduced but the cells persisted throughout the resolution phase.

Inflammatory Cell Infiltrate

Considering the clinical pictures obtained using TEFI and the close relationship we observed to the underlying histologic changes, we wished to determine whether the clinical features also related to the kinetics and levels of inflammatory cell infiltrate present in the eye during the course of EAU. The isolation and analysis of retinal infiltrate using flow cytometric methods has been used to determine the normal immune status of the eye,19 to quantify and monitor the kinetics of inflammatory infiltrate in the retina, and also evaluate the effects and efficacy of potential new immunomodulatory agents in EAU.17 Therefore, at the same time points described earlier, the left eye was also enucleated (as we noted synchronous bilateralism of clinical features during EAU), dissected, and single cell suspensions were prepared from the retina and the ciliary body. Cells were then stained with fluorochrome-conjugated monoclonal antibodies against CD11b (macrophages), CD4 (T cells), and CD45 (leukocytes) surface markers and analyzed by flow cytometry to enable quantification of total cell number and phenotype (Fig. 4B) .

We observed elevated levels of leukocytes compared with normal retina from day 12 pi forward. The number of CD11b+ and CD4+ cells increased steadily from day 13 pi onward, with the main expansion of both cell types occurring after day 15 pi, and at a maximum on day 18 pi. Furthermore, during this time CD4+ cells were present at lower levels, with a predominance of CD11b+ cells. Of note was the fact that an increased number of cells was detected before any evidence of clinical (TEFI images) or histologic disease. From day 19 to 21 pi, the level of inflammatory cell infiltrate reduced and CD45+ cell numbers remained throughout (to day 63 pi) at levels equivalent to those on day 13 pi. The number of cells never returned to normal predisease levels, indicating that CD45+ infiltrate persists and may contribute to the clinical changes observed during the resolution phase. The ratio of CD11b+ to CD4+ cells during this phase is also reduced with both cell types present in equal amounts at the later time points.

Correlation between CD45 Infiltrate and Histology

Figure 5A shows the change in the number of CD45+ cells compared with the change in histologic score with time after immunization. The data suggest an association between these variables with both staying low at days 12 to 13 pi, increasing between days 15 and 20 pi and then reducing again thereafter. Although the number of cells fell to levels similar to those at days 12 to 13 pi, the histologic score remained somewhat elevated, albeit lower than the peak scores. Partial correlation was used to explore the relationship between histologic score and numbers of CD45+ cells while controlling for time (days) after immunization. This confirmed that there was a strong, positive partial correlation (r = 0.78, df = 32, P < 0.001), with high histologic scores being associated with high cell counts (Fig. 5B) . The zero order correlation (r = 0.73) suggests that time has little influence on the strength of the association between these two variables.

Figure 5.

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Figure 5.

Correlation of infiltrate and histologic disease score. (A) Changes in the number of CD45+ cells and histologic score with time after immunization. (B) Scatterplot of total histologic score against the square root of total number of CD45+ cells. Partial correlation (r = 0.78, df = 32, P < 0.001) shows a strong, positive association between these variables while controlling for time after immunization.

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Discussion

TEFI has been an effective technique that permits high resolution in vivo imaging of the clinical changes that occur during EAU disease progression in mice. Previous techniques were limited, and TEFI now offers an improved, rapid, no-anesthesia approach to generating detailed panfundal images in mice. It also facilitates the reduction, replacement, and refinement goals now favored by ethics committees in animal experimentation. With TEFI, when comparisons and correlation are made with histologic scoring and flow cytometric assessment of retinal infiltrate, several important unrecognized features of this model become apparent. First, significant retinal cell infiltrate is observed whereas clinically the retina appears largely unaffected; second, the clinical resolution of peak disease is much faster than resolution of histologic disease, and finally, in the resolution phase of EAU, neither the clinical appearance or the extent and composition of CD45+ cells within the retina return to predisease levels (up to 63 days pi). Although we noted a correlation between histologic scoring and flow cytometric assessment of infiltrating leukocyte numbers, cell counts resolved faster than severity of histologic changes; and, with the use of TEFI, our results emphasize that significant changes may occur that are not always clinically manifest.

The objectives of this study were to validate a platform that uses the TEFI system for assessment of clinical time course of RBP-3161-180–induced EAU in B10.RIII mice and correlate clinicopathologic features to both histologic severity and the extent of inflammatory cell infiltration of the retina. The clinical images obtained using the TEFI approach overall closely associate to the pathologic features of disease observed by histology. Histologic assessment demonstrated that the disease in this model of EAU followed the classic monophasic profile, with peak disease severity observed at day 19. Analysis of the dynamics and kinetics of retinal infiltrate demonstrated that an expansion of CD45+ cells, including CD11b+ and CD4+ populations, was present before this peak. Although the number of infiltrating cells was reduced during the later resolution phase, histologic disease scores and infiltrate levels never returned to normal; this finding has not been appreciated in this model of autoimmune destruction of the retina. Statistical correlation analyses demonstrated a positive association between the number of infiltrating CD45+ cells and the resulting histologic disease severity.

By using TEFI, it is now possible to record and monitor the dramatic clinical changes that occur in B10.RIII mice during the normal disease course of RBP-3161-180–induced EAU. From the time of immunization until day 12 pi, the retina and vasculature appeared normal and healthy, followed by a series of clinical changes from days 13 to 18, including raised optic nerve, perivascular infiltration developing that manifests the perivascular infiltrate and vitritis normally appreciated as hallmarks of this model. The development of large exudative retinal detachments from day 17, which resolve, along with the other clinical features of perivascular infiltrate and vitritis, can also be observed. The emergence of retinal flecks, uniformly distributed across the retina is demonstrated from day 15 pi. The retinal flecks correspond to the retinal folds we observed histologically. Clinically and histologically, retinal integrity never normalizes to the predisease state during the EAU time course. We also noted with TEFI that clinical features of EAU were constant between contralateral eyes.

EAU serves as a model for the spectrum of human posterior uveitis including sympathetic ophthalmia and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (VKH; particularly in relation to exudative retinal detachments), multifocal choroiditis, ocular sarcoidosis, and other forms of idiopathic disease.1 20 For example, the clinical features seen in this study correlate well with clinical features of VKH, in which resolving exudative retinal detachments are observed. After resolution of acute VKH, the classic clinical features of sunset-glow retina with its appreciated degenerative features are seen, again correlating with our TEFI images from day 28 onward.

Flow cytometric analysis of cells isolated from the retina demonstrated that the elevated levels of inflammatory infiltrate observed from day 12 onward during the time course of EAU, consisted of macrophages, T cells, and other CD45+ leukocytes. Infiltration of cells at this time has been examined by histology, which demonstrates the perivascular accumulation of CD45+ cells in the retina,21 although this static analysis cannot fully assess the dynamics of infiltration. The infiltration kinetics revealed that the main expansion of cells occurred after day 15 pi, culminating in a peak at day 18, and during this time, the proportion of CD4+ cells present was reduced compared to the number of CD11b+ cells. After the infiltrative peak, total CD45+ cells were greatly reduced over the remainder of the time course, but never returned to predisease levels. During this resolution phase, both the main CD11b+ and CD4+ populations were present at equal levels. Persistence of elevated levels of infiltrate in the eye would suggest that resolution and recovery do not equate to normal leukocyte counts, and may further suggest that certain regulatory mechanisms are maintained in the eye after inflammation.22 23 Similarly assessment of immunotherapeutic agents, given our current findings of temporal disparity between clinical appearance and cell infiltrate in the earlier stages of disease, and together with previous observations of maintained cellular infiltrate despite reduced histologic scores,24 shows that it is plausible that changes in constituents and number of infiltrating cells are not appreciated in the face of normal clinical phenotype and may conversely not always indicate preservation of function.

Nevertheless, TEFI is a method that allows confirmation of disease status and severity. It will aid in the design of experimental protocols according to clinical observations. TEFI will also greatly assist with current approaches to preclinical testing of experimental eye models, as it allows direct observation and assessment of therapeutic efficacy of new potential ocular therapy. It will also provide a rapid assessment to determine potential adverse effects incurred due to invasive procedures including intravitreous or subretinal injections.

Although, unlike experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE),25 in which we are unable to ascribe directly functional deficit (paralysis) to histologic change or with the more technically demanding imaging of cellular infiltrate in the CNS,26 we are now able in EAU to directly correlate and assess clinical changes with histologic and flow cytometric analysis of cellular infiltrate. In both models, we now understand that significant cellular infiltrate occurs before the onset of clinical signs in the fundus of EAU and clinically in EAE.

Furthermore, the current published clinical grading of disease17 27 28 in both B10.RIII and/or C57BL/6 mouse models have been developed without incorporating evolution of clinical phenotype and comparison of such temporal characteristics with respect to the extent and timing of leukocytic infiltration (e.g., by flow cytometry analysis) and contemporaneous histopathologic appearances throughout the course of EAU. Although these scores may still be used, and indeed clinical features we show can mirror underlying histologic change, ascribing scoring of clinical severity or damage in light of this new data necessitates further investigation of EAU progression with larger groups of mice and in other strains (C57BL/6) to generate and then validate such a proposed grading system. The most recent report29 in C57BL/6 model of TEFI grading of clinical changes in chronic EAU supports our findings in this model of EAU. The advantage of adapting TEFI is therefore highlighted in both models and serves to assess more reproducibly the signs of inflammatory disease and correlate with underlying histologic and flow cytometric data.

Arguably, to fully assess preclinical immunotherapeutic efficacy requires the use of all three parameters: TEFI, histologic assessment, and flow cytometric analysis of retinal infiltrate. Combined TEFI and histologic methods enable the observation of clinical features and severity of disease, but information regarding the dynamics, phenotype, function and quantity of cellular traffic through the eye is only provided through detailed analysis of cell populations present in the eye at various stages of disease progression.

Researchers at the University of Bristol have developed a new diagnostic modality to monitor the retina, a technique that produces high resolution color images like the ones above.

Using the new technique called ‘TEFI’ (Topical Endoscopic Fundal Imaging), Professor Andrew Dick, David Copland and the team from the University of Bristol’s Academic Unit of Ophthalmology, monitored changes in mice retina over time, without distress to the animals or the need for anesthesia.

The study focused on a condition in mice similar to human posterior uveitis, an inflammation that affects the back of the eye and which can be difficult to monitor using existing techniques. TEFI allowed the researchers to see changes to the eye that were previously undetectable.

“TEFI enhances our monitoring of clinical disease in a rapid and non-invasive fashion,” Copland said. “It will aid in the design of experimental protocols according to clinical observations.”

Professor Dick added: “Combined TEFI and histological methods enable the observation of clinical features and severity of disease, but information regarding the dynamics, phenotype, function and quantity of cellular traffic through the eye is only provided through detailed analysis of cell populations present in the eye at various stages of disease progression.”

The study, “The Clinical Time-Course of Experimental Autoimmune Uveoretinitis Using Topical Endoscopic Fundal Imaging with Histologic and Cellular Infiltrate Correlation,” was published this week in Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. It featured the use of Topical Endoscopic Fundal Imaging (TEFI), a technique that uses an endoscope with parallel illumination and observation channels connected to a digital camera.

source : http://www.bris.ac.uk/news/2008/6045.html

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Weight-Bearing MRI with Esaote’s New G-scan Brio

Weight-Bearing MRI with Esaote’s New G-scan Brio

Weight-Bearing MRI with Esaote’s New G-scan Brio

Esaote is releasing its new G-Scan Brio MR system for performing weight-bearing examinations and for musculoskeletal applications. The bed rotates along with the magnet to any position between flat and upright. The G-scan can be used for anything from foot/ankle, knee, hip, L&C spine, shoulder, elbow to hand/wrist.

G scan Brio Weight Bearing MRI with Esaotes New G scan Brio

The MRI itself consists of an open permanent magnet with a low magnetic field strength of 0.25 Tesla. As a result, the system is relatively compact; the complete system, magnet, electronics and console can be installed within a single room of 288 square feet. It does not even need to be a preconstructed RF-shielded room, instead a light-weight RF pavilion that is placed within the room around the scanner is provided by Esaote.

The new system features the E-MRI Brio Release 2 platform that promises faster acquisition and reconstruction of images. A complete set of dedicated optimized coils for MSK applications is available and the system comes with a full set of pre-defined sequences and protocols. One interesting feature is a real time imaging tool for patient positioning.

More from the announcement:

G-Scan Brio is not only a unique system from a clinical and diagnostic viewpoint but it is also easy to site and very economical to run. The low break even point of G-Scan Brio is fully in line with the economical constraints of today’s healthcare environment making it an optimal investment also for the private clinic. Easy installation, ease of use, low maintenance technology, low energy consumption, no cryogens, and remote service: all equal a smart investment.

Together with the G-Scan Brio, Esaote introduces the new E-MRI Brio Release 2 platform, a combination of acquisition and reconstruction of 2D sequences that substantially speed-up the MRI examination, emphasizing high image quality. The biggest benefit of this particular technology is the reduction of scan time without compromising image quality.

Source : www.esaote.com/media/docs/PR_ENG_2012_11_19.pdf

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Endo-microscopy from Mauna Kea Technologies

Endo-microscopy from Mauna Kea Technologies

Endo-microscopy from Mauna Kea Technologies

A research team from the State University of New York at Buffalo has created nanoparticles that deliver genes into neurons in the brains of living mice “with an efficiency that is similar to, or better than, viral vectors and with no observable toxic effect.” The research, published in the current issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, could potentially revolutionize diagnosis and treatment of neurologic disorders.

From the press release:

The paper describes how the UB scientists used gene-nanoparticle complexes to activate adult brain stem/progenitor cells in vivo, demonstrating that it may be possible to “turn on” these otherwise idle cells as effective replacements for those destroyed by neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s.

In addition to delivering therapeutic genes to repair malfunctioning brain cells, the nanoparticles also provide promising models for studying the genetic mechanisms of brain disease…

The UB researchers make their nanoparticles from hybrid, organically modified silica (ORMOSIL), the structure and composition of which allow for the development of an extensive library of tailored nanoparticles to target gene therapies for different tissues and cell types.

A key advantage of the UB team’s nanoparticle is its surface functionality, which allows it to be targeted to specific cells, explained Dhruba J. Bharali, Ph.D., a co-author on the paper and post-doctoral associate in the UB Department of Chemistry and UB’s Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics.

While they are easier and faster to produce, non-viral vectors typically suffer from very low expression and efficacy rates, especially in vivo.

“This is the first time that a non-viral vector has demonstrated efficacy in vivo at levels comparable to a viral vector,” Bharali said.

In the UB experiments, targeted dopamine neurons — which degenerate in Parkinson’s disease, for example — took up and expressed a fluorescent marker gene, demonstrating the ability of nanoparticle technology to deliver effectively genes to specific types of cells in the brain.

Using a new optical fiber in vivo imaging technique (CellviZio developed by Mauna Kea Technologies of Paris), the UB researchers were able to observe the brain cells expressing genes without having to sacrifice the animal.

I came across a company called Mauna Kea Technologies.

They recently released the “GI” and “Lung” version of their cellular-level Cellvizio confocal endoscope.

What is great about the new GI and Lung Cellvizios is that a practitioner can insert one of their miniprobes (only 300 um to 2.8 mm in diameter) into a conventional endoscope and record microscopic level movies of the tissue as fast as 12 frames/sec.

The Image Atlas at http://www.maunakeatech.com contains several movies recorded by medical research labs and clinical practitioners in the US and in Europe. The recordings show an impressive level of detail. Their web site also mentions that they recently signed a distribution deal with Leica for their Small Animal imaging system.

Source : http://www.maunakeatech.com/

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The endogo® Portable Endoscopic Camera

The endogo® Portable Endoscopic Camera

The endogo® Portable Endoscopic Camera

The endogo® endoscopic camera is a hand-held, world’s first battery operated endoscopic video camera that is so small that it can fit in the palm of your hand. It is a product of Envisionier Medical Technologies, LLC, a Rockville, MD company. The camera is designed for a wide range of uses such as difficult intubations, and diagnostic exams by ENT / Urology / Ob Gyn / ER.

457634end2 The endogo® Portable Endoscopic Camera

The endogo® Portable Endoscopic Camera is the world’s first battery operated, portable, hand-held endoscopic video camera with integrated viewing and archiving capability which fits in the palm of your hand. The endogo® can be used with current optical flexible or rigid endoscopes in any clinical setting requiring simple, inexpensive, and easy to use video endoscopy with/without archiving the examination. Once the camera is turned on, it is ready for live viewing of an examination on the 2.4? TFT flip screen. Examination may continue without recording or the user may take video or still photos of the area to be examined.

Video compression in DV quality is performed using MPEG-4 video compression. Stills are compressed using a JPEG compression algorithm: both are industry standard methods for data compression. After use, images may be transported from the removable flash RAM drive (SD RAM) or transmitted via USB-2 to another computing device.

Image viewing can also be performed live via the USB-2 cable to a computing device or via the AV output to a compatible video monitor. Voice recordings may also be captured while recording to annotate clinical findings.

Source : http://envisionier.com/?page_id=13784

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New England Biolabs launches new NEBNext Ultra kits at ASHG annual meeting

New England Biolabs launches new NEBNext Ultra kits at ASHG annual meeting

New England Biolabs, Inc. (NEB) launched their new NEBNext® “Ultra” kits at the recent American Society for Human Genetics (ASHG) annual meeting. These kits provide streamlined, low-input methods to prepare DNA and RNA libraries for Illumina® next generation sequencing. The supplied protocols and reagents are designed to maximize useful data from a broad range of samples, including those available in limited amounts.

The NEBNext Ultra DNA and Ultra RNA Library Kits produce high-yield libraries from 5 ng to 1 ug of input DNA, or as little as 10 ng of input RNA. The input RNA can be total RNA, purified mRNA or rRNA-depleted RNA.

Early access user Cynthia Hendrickson, Ph.D., at the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, reports that in initial experiments, NEB’s new method “has allowed us to reduce our DNA inputs for exome enrichment from micrograms to a few hundred nanograms, while providing a simpler, faster protocol that minimizes the amount of hands-on time required.”

Another early access user, Momchilo Vuyisich, Ph.D., at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, says, “After testing several NGS library prep kits, we have found that the NEBNext Ultra DNA kit for Illumina has the best overall utility for resequencing and assembly of bacterial genomes. The kit offers an unmatched combination of ease-of-use, low cost, robustness and low input DNA requirements. It consistently produces excellent sequencing data.”

The new Ultra kits contain novel ligation reagents, as well as NEB’s NEBNext NGS-optimized formulation of Q5® High-Fidelity DNA polymerase, which provides ultra high-fidelity amplification and minimized GC bias.

NEB’s streamlined protocol for constructing DNA libraries with the Ultra kit requires only 15 minutes of hands-on-time, and is complete in 2.5 hours. The Ultra RNA workflow also incorporates a streamlined protocol; the workflow is complete in 4-5 hours, with only 30 minutes of hands-on time.

Source : http://www.news-medical.net/news/20121117/New-England-Biolabs-launches-new-NEBNext-Ultra-kits-at-ASHG-annual-meeting.aspx

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Siemens Acuson X700 Brings Powerful Image Processing to Budget Friendly Ultrasound

Siemens Acuson X700 Brings Powerful Image Processing to Budget Friendly Ultrasound

Siemens Acuson X700 Brings Powerful Image Processing to Budget Friendly Ultrasound

“A strong fourth quarter enabled us to fulfill our expectations for fiscal 2012 and achieve one of our best years ever. Even so, we didn’t fully succeed in significantly boosting our performance vis-à-vis competitors, as we did in recent years. To get back to reaching our own goals, we’ve launched “Siemens 2014,” a company-wide program aimed at raising our Total Sectors profit margin to at least 12 percent. We know what we have to do – and we’re doing it.”

Peter Löscher, President and Chief Executive Officer of Siemens AG

Financial Highlights:

Revenue for the fourth quarter rose 7% year-over-year, to €21.703 billion, and orders rose 2% to €21.495 billion. On a comparable basis, excluding currency translation and portfolio effects, revenue was up 1% and orders declined 4%.

Total Sectors profit was €2.119 billion, held back by substantial profit impacts in the Energy Sector.

Income from continuing operations was €1.479 billion and corresponding basic EPS was €1.63.

An outstanding fourth-quarter cash performance in the Sectors lifted Free cash flow from continuing operations to €4.343 billion, well above last year’s strong closing quarter.

For fiscal 2012, revenue rose 7% year-over-year, to €78.296 billion, while orders came in 10% lower, at €76.913 billion, due to a significantly lower volume from large orders compared to the prior year. Total Sectors Profit was €7.543 billion and income from continuing operations was €5.184 billion. Siemens proposes a dividend of €3.00 per share, unchanged from fiscal 2011.

Please read the complete Earnings Release in the attached PDF:

Earnings Release

All figures are preliminary and unaudited. This Earnings Release should be read in conjunction with information Siemens published today regarding legal proceedings.

Financial Publications are available for download at: www.siemens.com/ir

-> Publications & Events.

This document includes supplemental financial measures that are or may be non-GAAP financial measures. New orders and order backlog; adjusted or organic growth rates of revenue and new orders; book-to-bill ratio; Total Sectors profit; return on equity (after tax), or ROE (after tax); return on capital employed (adjusted), or ROCE (adjusted); Free cash flow, or FCF; cash conversion rate, or CCR; adjusted EBITDA; adjusted EBIT; adjusted EBITDA margins, earnings effects from purchase price allocation, or PPA effects; net debt and adjusted industrial net debt are or may be such non-GAAP financial measures. These supplemental financial measures should not be viewed in isolation as alternatives to measures of Siemens’ financial condition, results of operations or cash flows as presented in accordance with IFRS in its Consolidated Financial Statements. Other companies that report or describe similarly titled financial measures may calculate them differently. Definitions of these supplemental financial measures, a discussion of the most directly comparable IFRS financial measures, information regarding the usefulness of Siemens’ supplemental financial measures, the limitations associated with these measures and reconciliations to the most comparable IFRS financial measures are available on Siemens’ Investor Relations website at www.siemens.com/nonGAAP. For additional information, see supplemental financial measures and the related discussion in Siemens’ most recent annual report on Form 20-F, which can be found on our Investor Relations website or via the EDGAR system on the website of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

This document contains statements related to our future business and financial performance and future events or developments involving Siemens that may constitute forward-looking statements. These statements may be identified by words such as “expects,” “looks forward to,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “will,” “project” or words of similar meaning. We may also make forward-looking statements in other reports, in presentations, in material delivered to stockholders and in press releases. In addition, our representatives may from time to time make oral forward-looking statements. Such statements are based on the current expectations and certain assumptions of Siemens’ management, and are, therefore, subject to certain risks and uncertainties. A variety of factors, many of which are beyond Siemens’ control, affect Siemens’ operations, performance, business strategy and results and could cause the actual results, performance or achievements of Siemens to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements that may be expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements or anticipated on the basis of historical trends. These factors include in particular, but are not limited to, the matters described in Item 3: Risk factors of our most recent annual report on Form 20-F filed with the SEC, in the chapter “Risks” of our most recent annual report prepared in accordance with the German Commercial Code, and in the chapter “Report on risks and opportunities” of our most recent interim report.

Further information about risks and uncertainties affecting Siemens is included throughout our most recent annual, and interim reports as well as our most recent earnings release, which are available on the Siemens website, www.siemens.com, and throughout our most recent annual report on Form 20-F and in our other filings with the SEC, which are available on the Siemens website www.siemens.com, and on the SEC’s website, www.sec.gov. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results, performance or achievements of Siemens may vary materially from those described in the relevant forward-looking statement as being expected, anticipated, intended, planned, believed, sought, estimated or projected. Siemens neither intends, nor assumes any obligation, to update or revise these forward-looking statements in light of developments which differ from those anticipated.

Due to rounding, numbers presented throughout this and other documents may not add up precisely to the totals provided and percentages may not precisely reflect the absolute figures.

Siemens is beefing up its budget conscious Acuson X line of ultrasounds with the new X700 device that features some of the technologies previously only available on the Acuson S series.

The X700 optimizes ergonomics thanks to a 20 inch monitor mounted on a pivoting and rotating arm and the height adjustable control panel that helps clinicians of all sizes work easier whether sitting down or standing up. It features a couple USB ports on the front to quickly take recordings with you for later review.

Acuson X700 2 Siemens Acuson X700 Brings Powerful Image Processing to Budget Friendly Ultrasound

Some main features imported into the Acuson X700 according to Siemens:

Advanced SieClear spatial compounding, for example, enhances anatomic border definition and improves tissue contrast through electronic beam steering, allowing rapid acquisition of overlapping images from different view angles. The Dynamic TCE (tissue contrast enhancement) technology also improves borders and reduces speckle/noise, facilitating subtle tissue differentiation. Moreover, the Acuson X700 system features intelligent workflow solutions to enable the high throughput required by various clinical departments that use the system. For example, the TGO (tissue grayscale optimization) technology provides instantaneous one-button image optimization by automatically adjusting the image brightness to the tissue type being imaged.

Furthermore, Siemens has migrated its patented MicroPinless (MP) transducer connectors from premium platforms to the Acuson X700 system. MP connectors offer the highest signal fidelity and improve the signal-to-noise ratio to enhance signal quality. The transducers are compatible with Siemens’ Acuson S Family, Acuson X Family, and Acuson Sequoia ultrasound systems to increase flexibility and investment value for the customer. The Acuson X700 system also features a new, single-solution, 50-millimeter aperture linear array transducer for superficial as well as deep imaging. The proprietary Hanafy lens transducer technology provides continuous focusing and image uniformity while delivering superb contrast and detail resolution.

The Acuson X700 system offers many features and options to accommodate a broad range of applications and clinical environments. For instance, 3-Scape real-time 3D imaging and Advanced fourSight technology support 3D/4D imaging for fetal, abdominal, and gynecological examinations. Multiple knowledge-based workflow applications support the workflow to ensure consistency. The software Syngo Auto OB Measurements, for example, draws on a large database of ultrasound images to provide instant automated biometric measurements of the fetus without manual calculations. Advanced cardiac imaging applications like intracardiac echocardiography imaging support physicians during procedure visualization and device placement monitoring. The system’s options and features can be configured individually to support various clinical needs.

Source : http://www.siemens.com/press/en/pressrelease/?press=/en/pressrelease/2012/healthcare/clinical-products/hcp201211005.htm

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