Archive for ‘Dental’

Disney Research Software Turns Photos Into Digital Dental Impressions

Disney Research Software Turns Photos Into Digital Dental Impressions

model-based-teeth-reconstruction

 

 

Disney is much more than cartoons, toys, and amusement parks. The company runs a high tech research arm that often comes up with unusual and innovative devices and technologies that often have relevance to medical practice. The latest publicly announced project from Disney Research is a 3D reconstruction software that uses data gathered from photos or videos of people’s teeth to create accurate virtual models of those teeth.

Dentists already have access to specialized devices that digitize the structure of teeth by taking many high quality shots of the mouth from inside and outside. These reconstructions can then be used as digital impressions for dentures, inlays, and other procedures. The problem is that such devices are still expensive and may not be affordable by dentists in many parts of the world.

Disney’s software may one day end up in a smartphone app that would allow a dentist to quickly and easily create models of teeth that would be accurate enough for clinical use.

Check out this video that demonstrates the capabilities of the software:

 

More from Disney Research: Model-Based Teeth Reconstruction…

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SoundBite Dental Hearing System Now an Option in Europe

SoundBite Dental Hearing System Now an Option in Europe

SoundBite Dental Hearing System Now an Option in Europe

The SoundBite™ Hearing System in Detail

SoundBite Hearing System works by making innovative use of the well-established, natural principle of bone conduction – the transmission of imperceptible sound vibrations through the bones to the inner ears – to deliver clear, natural, high quality sound.

Nearly invisible when worn, the SoundBite system consists of two components: an easy to insert and remove ITM (in-the-mouth) hearing device and a small BTE (behind-the-ear) microphone unit worn on the impaired ear. No dental work or modifications to the teeth are required. Both components have rechargeable batteries and a system charger is also provided.

The BTE (Behind-The-Ear) Microphone Unit

SoundBite Behind-the-Ear Unit

BTE (Behind-The-Ear)

Microphone Unit

To take advantage of the natural acoustic benefits provided by the patient’s own ear, sound in the environment is picked up by a tiny microphone placed within an open fit dome worn in the canal of the impaired ear and connected to the BTE by a small translucent tube. The BTE uses a digital signal processor to process the sound and a wireless chip to transmit the signals to the ITM hearing device, which in turn sends imperceptible vibrations via the teeth near-simultaneously to both cochleae. In this way, sound is rerouted from the impaired ear directly to the good cochlea – bypassing the middle and outer ear entirely – to effectively restore the perception of hearing from the impaired ear. SoundBite Hearing System delivers sound across a broad frequency range of 500 Hz to more than 12 kHz.

The ITM (In-the-Mouth) Hearing Device

SoundBite Oral Device

ITM (In-The-Mouth)

Hearing Device

The ITM device is custom made to fit around either the upper left or right back teeth, does not require any alteration of the teeth, and is easily inserted and removed by the wearer. It contains electronics, a sealed, flat, rechargeable battery, wireless capability that picks up sound transmissions from the BTE, and a small actuator that converts those signals into vibratory energy. All of these miniaturized components are hermetically sealed inside a dental grade acrylic that has been safely used for making dental appliances for many years.

System Charger

SoundBite Charger

System Charger with

BTE and ITM

SoundBite does not require changing batteries. A system charger powers both the ITM Hearing Device and BTE microphone unit. The charge lasts 6 to 8 hours for the ITM and 15 to 18 hours for the BTE.

SAN MATEO, Calif., Sept. 5, 2012 /PRNewswire/ — Sonitus Medical, Inc., a medical device company that manufactures the world’s first non-surgical and removable hearing device to transmit sound via the teeth, today is announcing the global commercialization and a limited market launch in Europe of its SoundBite™ Hearing System. The first deployment of its prosthetic devices throughout Europe is a measured roll out to seven centers of excellence in key markets in order to conduct a multi-site evaluation of the SoundBite prosthetic device.

“This is a major milestone for our company as we begin to establish a commercial network for SoundBite in Europe,” said Amir Abolfathi, CEO of Sonitus Medical. “We are gratified to be working with esteemed hearing specialists in the EU medical community to undertake this post-market evaluation which will document long-term utilization and patient experience.”

The SoundBite Hearing System received CE Mark certification in The European Union for the treatment of single sided deafness, or patients who are essentially deaf in one ear, those with conductive hearing loss, and those with mixed hearing loss.

SoundBite uses bone conduction to deliver clear, high quality sound to the inner ear. Many familiar sounds are heard through bone conduction; for example chattering teeth, crunching on potato chips, or scratching the scalp. Nearly invisible when worn, the SoundBite system consists of an easy to insert and remove in-the-mouth hearing device and a small microphone unit worn behind the ear.

About the European Pilot Study

Currently underway with 20 patients at four leading academic medical centers, the pilot study will monitor patient experiences and qualitative results at one, six, and 12 months, and will grow to include five patients at each site for a total of 35 subjects.

The seven participating centers of excellence are: The University Hospital Southampton, United Kingdom; University Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain; University Hospital, Maastricht, Netherlands; University Hospital of Geneva, Switzerland; University Medical Center of Mainz, Germany; Hanusch Hospital, Vienna, Austria; and ENT Practice of Dr. Waldemar Motzko, Bad Soden, Germany.

New Senior Management

With Sonitus’ European commercialization plans well underway, the company has deepened its management team with the recent appointment of two high level senior executives with decades of relevant experience.

Mike Favet, named Chief Operating Officer, has been in the medical device industry for more than 20 years, accumulating broad cross-functional experience in companies of various sizes with products in diverse therapeutic areas. Chief Financial Officer Jeff Mack brings more than 25 years of experience, including a strong background with fast-growing, technology-based companies. He has extensive experience in all areas of financial management, including capital events/IPOs, SEC reporting and compliance, M&A and investor relations.

“We are extremely pleased to welcome these two seasoned executives to the company,” said Abolfathi. “As we to continue to ramp up our European network, Mr. Favet and Mr. Mack will play integral roles in guiding Sonitus Medical forward in our efforts to offer a novel treatment solution for all patient who suffer from single sided deafness, conductive hearing loss, or mixed hearing loss.”

About Sonitus Medical

Sonitus Medical (www.sonitusmedical.com) is a privately held medical device company committed to providing advanced hearing solutions that hearing professionals such as otologists, ENTs, and audiologists can use to help their patients rejoin the conversation of life. Founded in June 2006, the company is headquartered in San Mateo, California. Its SoundBite Hearing System (www.soundbitehearing.com) is the world’s first non-surgical and removable hearing solution that relies on bone conduction to imperceptibly transmit sound via the teeth.

Currently FDA cleared for the treatment of both single sided deafness and conductive hearing loss, SoundBite Hearing System has intended future indications for hearing disorders such as tinnitus. The technology also has application in consumer and communications. Additionally, the company has received its CE Mark certification, which indicates full quality assurance system approval and that Sonitus Medical’s design and manufacturing processes for the SoundBite device comply with certain manufacturing and design standards under the European directive concerning medical devices.

Source : http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/sonitus-medical-announces-first-european-commercialization-with-shipment-of-soundbite-hearing-system-to-seven-centers-of-excellence-168601676.html

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Dense-Array Electroencephalography with Source Imaging Gives a New View into Epilepsy

Dense-Array Electroencephalography with Source Imaging Gives a New View into Epilepsy

Dense-Array Electroencephalography with Source Imaging Gives a New View into Epilepsy

Temporal lobe seizures have a significant chance to induce impairment of normal brain functions. Even after the termination of ictal discharges, during the post-ictal period, loss of consciousness, decreased responsiveness or other cognitive dysfunctions can persist. Previous studies have found various anatomical and functional abnormalities accompanying temporal lobe seizures, including an abnormal elevation of cortical slow waves. Intracranial electroencephalography studies have shown a prominent increase of lower frequency components during and following seizures that impair (complex partial seizures) but not those that preserve (simple partial seizures) normal consciousness and responsiveness. However, due to the limited spatial coverage of intracranial electroencephalography, the investigation of cortical slow waves cannot be easily extended to the whole brain. In this study, we used scalp electroencephalography to study the spectral features and spatial distribution of post-ictal slow waves with comprehensive spatial coverage. We studied simple partial, complex partial and secondarily generalized seizures in 28 patients with temporal lobe seizures. We used dense-array electroencephalography and source imaging to reconstruct the post-ictal slow-wave distribution. In the studied cohort, we found that a ‘global’ spectral power shift to lower frequencies accompanied the increased severity of seizures. The delta spectral power relative to higher frequency bands was highest for secondarily generalized seizures, followed by complex partial seizures and lastly simple partial seizures. In addition to this ‘global’ spectral shift, we found a ‘regional’ spatial shift in slow-wave activity. Secondarily generalized seizures and complex partial seizures exhibited increased slow waves distributed to frontal areas with spread to contralateral temporal and parietal regions than in simple partial seizures. These results revealed that a widespread cortical network including temporal and fronto-parietal cortex is involved in abnormal slow-wave activity following temporal lobe seizures. The differential spectral and spatial shifts of post-ictal electroencephalography activity in simple partial, complex partial and secondarily generalized seizures suggest a possible connection between cortical slow waves and behavioural and cognitive changes in a human epilepsy model.

The study’s findings include:

Important data about brain function can be gathered through non-invasive methods, not only during a seizure, but immediately after a seizure.

The frontal lobe of the brain is most involved in severe seizures.

Seizures in the temporal lobe are most common among adults. The new technique used in the study will help determine the side of the brain where the seizures originate.

“This is the first-ever study where new non-invasive methods were used to study patients after a seizure instead of during a seizure,” said Bin He, a biomedical engineering professor in the University of Minnesota’s College of Science and Engineering and senior author of the study. “It’s really a paradigm shift for research in epilepsy.”

Epilepsy affects nearly 3 million Americans and 50 million people worldwide. While medications and other treatments help many people of all ages who live with epilepsy, about 1 million people in the U.S. and 17 million people worldwide continue to have seizures that can severely limit their lives.

The biggest challenge for medical researchers is to locate the part of the brain responsible for the seizures to determine possible treatments. In the past, most research has focused on studying patients while they were having a seizure, or what is technically known as the “ictal” phase of a seizure. Some of these studies involved invasive methods such as surgery to collect data.

In the new study, researchers from the University of Minnesota and Mayo Clinic used a novel approach by studying the brains of 28 patients immediately after seizures, or what is technically know as the “postictal” phase of a seizure. They used a specialized type of non-invasive EEG with 76 electrodes attached to the scalp for gathering data in contrast to most previous research that used 32 electrodes. The researchers used specialized imaging technology to gather data about the patient. The findings may lead to innovative means of locating the brain regions responsible for seizures in individual patients using non-invasive strategies.

“The imaging technology that we developed here at the University of Minnesota allowed us to tackle this research and gather several thousand data points that helped us determine our findings,” He said. “The technical innovation was a big part of what helped us make this discovery.”

He, who was recently appointed the director of the University of Minnesota’s Institute for Engineering in Medicine, said this study was also a good example of a true partnership between engineering and medicine to further medical research.

“The innovations in engineering combined with collaborations with clinicians at Mayo Clinic made this research a reality,” He said.

In addition to He, members of the research team included University of Minnesota biomedical engineering Ph.D. student Lin Yang; Gregory A. Worrell, Mayo Clinic, Neurology and Division of Epilepsy; Cindy Nelson, Mayo Clinic, Neurology; and Benjamin Brinkmann, Mayo Clinic, Neurology. The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health.

Epileptic seizures have mystified people for thousands of years, appearing in the Bible numerous times as evidence of wicked spirits invading innocent human hosts. Though Jesus reportedly treated these cases with divine intervention, he failed to leave clinical guidelines, leaving modern clinicians to continue to be confounded by epilepsy.

An important factor when deciding what treatment option to offer an individual patient is knowing where in the brain the electrical storm is generated. Commonly EEG is used when a patient is experiencing a seizure to do this localization, but now researchers from University of Minnesota and Mayo Clinic have shown that a high density EEG test immediately following a seizure offers similar ability. They used an EEG array of 76 electrodes (more than double the 32 usually used) to study 28 epileptic patients and discovered that the frontal lobe is a predominant source of the seizure during particularly severe episodes. The researchers hope the new technology will be adopted to help individual patients address the unique nature of their disease.

Source : http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2012/08/24/brain.aws221.abstract

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Virtual Medical Antique “Cabinet of Curiosities” Gets Sleek New Upgrade (interview)

Virtual Medical Antique “Cabinet of Curiosities” Gets Sleek New Upgrade (interview)

Virtual Medical Antique “Cabinet of Curiosities” Gets Sleek New Upgrade

It can be fascinating to explore the cutting edge of medical and surgical interventions, but we should not forget that modern day innovations have their roots steeped in a rich history of medicine. One place to explore these roots is Phisick.com, which we have featured before on Medgagdet and particularly when we showcased a fine surgical kit from the 1800s. Phisick is the brainchild of London-based general practitioner Dr. Laurie Slater, who named it after the term used in 16th century England to mean “medicine.”

Phisick has recently been given an overhaul and the content on the site has been rewritten from the ground up. To learn more about what we can expect, Medgadget reached out to Dr. Slater via phone and e-mail, who gave us an insight into some of the fascinating old medical instruments featured on the website. Dr. Slater has ambitious plans for the site, which he hopes will eventually contain the pieces from a number of different collectors, enabling it to rival the collections of many brick-and-mortar museums.

What inspired you to do the upgrade on Phisick?

When I first started collecting it was just a bit of fun really and I built the site myself using a basic HTML editor called FrontPage. In its day this software was fine for writing a personal homepage, but as the site grew in size I realized that it was not well suited for displaying a large number of items. It was a static site, which means that each item on show had its own page and each of these pages had to be individually linked to other pages within the menu system. By the time I had a few hundred pieces, the addition of a single new item had become an incredibly time consuming process and in the end the site had turned into a bit of a “dinosaur”. I needed a database-driven website and as this was beyond my level of expertise I realized that I was going to need some professional help.

I found a bright young Australian web designer Chris Sealey who despite his tender years was already publishing his own articles on design with a strong focus on the user experience. He agreed to take on the project and we spent a lot of time on Skype and hundreds of emails thrashing out the design and functionality of the site before getting started. I had a pretty clear idea of the features I wanted and not only was he able to deliver these but he also encouraged me in directions I would not have gone which turned out to be spot on; it was a really good combination of efforts. It probably took us the best part of six months to knock the site together from concept to final product. I could not have made a better decision in using him because he has done a fantastic job and has delivered a future proof site which works like a dream, is easy to maintain and looks great.

Can you give us a summary of what is new on Phisick?

The front end doesn’t look that dissimilar to the original in terms of overall appearance because having already had a number of regular visitors I wanted to retain something that was recognizably ‘Phisick’. Under the bonnet though, it is a completely different beast. The categories in the left hand menu are similar but have been expanded. Quackery is no longer listed as a discrete category because so many of these old instruments which were considered mainstream in their day are now thought to be of questionable benefit. Instead quackery can be selected with a filter, as can age, or use (educational, diagnostic or therapeutic) or media (books, models, pictures) etc. One of the site’s strong points is the ability to drill down on a massive amount of information within the database and so the search window is now a central feature. Boolean searches can be applied individually, or stacked on top of category or filter searches which results in a very powerful tool. You can identify items by a host of different criteria such as maker, or country of origin, or material of construction in various combinations. So the site is more functional and users should now find it much easier now to find what they are looking for. The aesthetics have also been improved and the photography is now easier to view through a light box and the overall appearance is clean and clutter free.

In terms of content the number of antiques has been added to and this is an ongoing process with many pieces yet to be photographed and more to be added each month. A new feature is the ‘Article’ section which can be found on the top menu. I wrote a number of articles for a GP magazine a few years ago which I am converting into a web based format and I hope these will pique interest in some of our visitors. I also plan to invite experts with a particular interest to write pieces on their specialty.

What are your plans for the future of Phisick?

Dynamism is an essential feature for any website and the ones which do not change can so easily turn into internet graveyards. So one of the longer term goals to keep the content varied and changing. The biggest constraints with building any collection tend to be space and resources. After a few years of collecting, what could once be accommodated on a shelf overflows into a room then an attic or a garage. Piled high and gathering dust is not the best way to celebrate the beauty and craftsmanship of these objects and this is where the web site comes into its own—as a tardis-like display case.

But there are limits to what one can do as an individual. What I would like to do is to invite collectors to join the site. At the moment Phisick is a single collection but I have invited a German obstetrician friend who is a collector to add his pieces. Over time, the process of inviting others to join us will make it possible to build a more comprehensive collection than could any one individual. We will be able to choose collectors from around the world with specific interests and invite them to display their collection within the same basic structure of the website. Who knows, in the longer term we might even compare well with some of the bigger museums in terms of the number and quality of pieces that are shown.

As time goes on, expanding the website also turns it into a more functional resource. Having a database of instruments, dates, makers, country of origin and the materials of construction makes researching other pieces less of an arduous task. So one of the things that I am hoping to do, beyond displaying this information already on the site, is to develop an on-line database which other collectors, historians or researchers can access to look up that information. It makes perfect sense and would take a lot of the headache out of identifying or dating an instrument.

Collections evolve over time. They can get bigger or smaller or change direction with developing interests. The nature of acquisition is one of purchase or trade and exchange. Once sold they may no longer be part of the collection but the time consuming process of photographing and documenting them should not go to waste. To this end the web site includes all pieces which have passed through Phisick but labels those items which are not current as ‘archives’. The old site had a separate section for archives but the beauty of using a database record is that they can be displayed together, or selected out at will with filters. The vast majority of people who come to the site want to look at interesting pieces and don’t have the slightest interest in ownership. Likewise those doing research or looking at one type of instrument to see if there are variations in design over time can benefit from being able to select from the whole database.

How did you get interested in collecting medical antiques?

I remember seeing my first old instrument, a polished steel tonsillotome (for removing tonsils) with a crosshatched ebony handle. I was struck by the remarkable quality of the materials, the craftsmanship and effort that had gone into making such an intricate mechanism. It was a thing of beauty in my eyes. This was the beginning of a long journey which has yet to finish. There are many factors which contribute to an item’s collectibility. Sometimes there is a great story which accompanies the provenance of a piece. Sometimes an instrument will be a “folly” which illustrates the beliefs prevalent in society at that time. Many of the items I collect are aesthetically pleasing or tactile, but this is less to do with looking “pretty” and more related to having some degree of symbolism. I find this difficult to explain because symbolism speaks a primitive, emotive and essentially non-verbal language. There has been much written on the blurred boundaries between magic, medicine and religion and perhaps it is related to this. A lot of pieces that you see on the website which are eye catching, or striking are more than just instruments. They talk to you in a subliminal way and although they born of science they are also works of art in their own right.

What are some of your favorites from the collection?

Rein Table Ear Trumpet with Tube

Rein Table Ear Trumpet with Tube Virtual Medical Antique Cabinet of Curiosities Gets Sleek New Upgrade (interview)

I am a sucker for ear trumpets. I love them; it is a bit sad, I know. One of the Rein ear trumpets, which is a big tabletop piece, is just wonderful. In the strictest terms it should probably be called a conversation tube. These have an ear piece at one end, a sound collecting device (trumpet) at the other and the two are connected by a flexible steel spring tube bound in silk. The user points the trumpet towards the person who speaks into it and this is an incredibly effective way of transmitting sound. If you were in a pub and you put most hand held ear trumpets to your ear you wouldn’t be able to hear a thing for all the amplified background noise. But on a one to one basis, this instrument is amazing and the faintest of whispers comes out crystal clear. Rein was a renowned 19th century maker of ear trumpets and some of his pieces with chased designs on silver plate were considered state of the art when ear trumpets were all the rage. He certainly threw a lot of love into making them and around the base of the ear trumpet is written ‘F C Rein and Son patentees sole inventors and only makers 108 Strand London’. It is such a cool thing to see this engraved by hand on every single piece this man made and helps you to appreciate not just the craftsmanship, the incredible care and attention to detail, but also the pride which went along with it. This particular piece is a monster of an ear trumpet bigger than a four-litre jug of ale. The silver tube coming off the side onto which the silk tube attaches reminds you once more of who made it. The whole thing is really just exquisite. One of the things that has always attracted me is the amount of time and effort invested in them by master craftsmen and the top quality materials that they were made from — there is nothing really to compare it with today.

Ophthalmophantome

Ophthalmophantome Virtual Medical Antique Cabinet of Curiosities Gets Sleek New Upgrade (interview)

Another of my favourite pieces is the Ophthalmophantome. This looks more like the sort of mask which would be worn to a steam-punk Venetian ball, but is in fact a model which was used by students of eye surgery. In its day, it would have been black but the paint has been removed leaving a darker than usual aluminium colour which looks almost like pewter. The brass eyes are made from coiled springs behind the eye sockets and in the centre of each eye is a pincer. What they used to do was secure real pig’s eyes in the pincers and then the student surgeons would try their hand at various eye operations. It is a remarkable thing to look at and this piece has real charisma and presence, the deadpan facies and the spirals of brass disappearing onto the eye socket giving it a hypnotic mesmerising quality. They are very rare things and hard to find as they don’t often get to market. It took me three or four years of hunting to find this one.

Perkins Tractors

Perkins Tractors Virtual Medical Antique Cabinet of Curiosities Gets Sleek New Upgrade (interview)Rarity is certainly one of the qualities which is attractive to collectors and these small metal rods, once very common throughout Europe and America are now hardly ever seen. The story of Perkins tractors almost defines quackery. Elisha Perkins, an American physician, “invented” his rods in the late 18th century and marketed them as being made from rare alloys. He presented them to the unknowing public (and unwitting medical profession) as being panaceas — cures for all sorts of illnesses. In fact, one of them was made from brass and the other from steel and they had absolutely no medical or curative properties whatsoever. However, his business skills were not lacking and he made a fortune selling his tractors to medics and laymen throughout Europe and England and America, along with his son who took over and continued a successful business, albeit one which was based on complete and utter fabrication. What is interesting is their commercial success in the face of what was more than a covert suspicion that this was quackery. In 1801, James Gillray a British caricaturist drew a fat cat having his face traumatised by metal tractors with a newspaper advert in view proclaiming the “Just arrived from America the rod of Aescalipius” (sic) etc. They are about two or three inches long and effectively just two small metal rods. Very few seem to have survived (one wonders if most have been unknowingly thrown out with the trash) and these are perhaps one of the rarer pieces in the collection. They have such a great story with Elisha Perkins as the “father of quackery” that they are very collectible.

Schematic Model Eye Virtual Medical Antique Cabinet of Curiosities Gets Sleek New Upgrade (interview)Schematic Model Eye

A model eye which was used to teach students and ophthalomologists the art of fundoscopy (examination of the eye and structures within in it) and refraction. Made by the famous German lens manufacturer Leitz Wetzlar. A wonderful looking piece with amulet like qualities and a finishing touch of oh so human hair.

Vecabe Dental Model Jaw and Teeth

Vecabe Dental Model Jaw and Teeth Virtual Medical Antique Cabinet of Curiosities Gets Sleek New Upgrade (interview)

A simply beautiful dental model whose pictures tell you much more than I can.

Auzoux models

Louis Auzoux was a French doctor who qualified in Paris in the early 19th century. Instead of going ahead to practice medicine as a career he built exacting anatomical models from plaster of Paris and made this his profession. The models he made were of a high standard and were anatomically perfect and he recognised a need for this commodity. Cadavers were often obtained by questionable means and decayed rapidly and wax models (fantastic examples though they were) were considerably more labour-intensive and expensive. So having good models made of plaster of Paris was a very real alternative. However, the nature of plaster of Paris is that it is a very fragile material and few have survived in good condition.

Auzoux model Virtual Medical Antique Cabinet of Curiosities Gets Sleek New Upgrade (interview)The hemi-section of the head and neck is a wonderful example and is unusually complete. This is a super sized model and about twice the size of a human head and this man has an unquestionable aura. There is pathos here, his doleful eyes speak volumes and over the years I have grown rather fond of him. They are beautiful pieces of art which make stunning displays and which tell a great story (the transition between cadavers and wax models to inanimate anatomy models) which is what makes them so collectible.

old brain model Virtual Medical Antique Cabinet of Curiosities Gets Sleek New Upgrade (interview)The other piece which I love is the brain, which again is super sized. Auzoux referred to his work as ‘anatomie clastique’ (literally anatomy which can be broken down) and all of his models dissemble into their constituent parts by means of brass pins and sockets or brass hooks and hinges. So it is not just from the outside they take the form of a complete anatomically correct model, but the whole piece can be stripped down, layer by layer like onion rings, or segment by segment to see all of the anatomical structures inside. Within the brain are plumes of fan-like paper representing the neurological tracts extending into the cerebral hemispheres. Behind the brainstem is a walnut shaped structure, the cerebellum. I remember when I first looked at this piece, detached the cerebellum, and realised that it opened its two halves like a book (it is hinged). On the inside of each half I saw these finely painted cerebellar tracts all done by hand to an incredibly high standard and realised that I was probably the first person to look at that surface for maybe 140 years. It is remarkable really that some of these papier-mâché models have survived this well. They are very beautiful pieces which blur the boundaries between art and science. This is the sort of antique which grabs me by the lapels and say “Buy me … or the species will die”!

Paris Silver Gilt Medicine Spoon

Paris Silver Gilt Medicine Spoon Virtual Medical Antique Cabinet of Curiosities Gets Sleek New Upgrade (interview)

A small medicine spoon from Paris, silver gilt hallmarked and dated to 1792 and with a simply exquisite spiraled handle. In the mouth of the French revolution!

Silver Dental Mirror by Marmont

Silver Dental Mirror by Marmont Virtual Medical Antique Cabinet of Curiosities Gets Sleek New Upgrade (interview)

This piece earned a place in my heart when I learnt that the inventor, an early 19th century Parisian dentist, was also a poet amongst whose works was a piece called “The art of dentistry”. He also was an early pioneer and advocate of the treatment of caries in the face of the widespread practice of extraction, as was the intended use of his mirror. The mirror itself is about as nice a dental mirror as anyone, even from the Palais Royal, could have hoped for.

Davis Herniorrhaphy instrument

Davis Herniorrhaphy instrument Virtual Medical Antique Cabinet of Curiosities Gets Sleek New Upgrade (interview)

The other qualities which make a piece interesting are those which tell you a little bit about the philosophies and ideas of the time and about how and when these changed direction or developed into different schools of thought. A lot of quackery devices point toward beliefs and ideas which were prevalent in society. Sometime people invented things which were useless, a bit like follies I suppose. Somebody tried something and it didn’t work. They made a few and then they moved onto something else. Because of their folly like nature, they tell a good story and they tend also to be rare and so collectible. The Davis Herniorrhaphy instrument is rather well constructed from three leaves of ebony, two joined with a hinge, mounted with silver brackets and an intersecting needle. It is a typical example of an invention that wasn’t so clever. Davis had the idea that if you put some foreign body (wood) into a wound that this would cause fibrosis and adhesions, which in the case of a hernia would seal off and secure any weakness in the abdominal wall. The rationale was OK, but the practice was not.

It is easy to look at them and laugh and to wonder what they were thinking of at the time. But I wonder if people will be belly aching at us in one hundred years when they see the interventions on Medgadget, which now seem so plausible!

Source : http://phisick.com/

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Beam Brush Quantifies Your Dental Hygiene Habits

Beam Brush Quantifies Your Dental Hygiene Habits

Beam Brush Quantifies Your Dental Hygiene Habits

Want to really embrace the quantitative self? Forget tracking your sleep and start tracking your dental hygiene. Beam Technologies, a year-old startup is set to introduce a Bluetooth-enabled toothbrush and app that will launch next month and retail for around $50 for the base.

Want to really embrace the quantitative self? Forget tracking your sleep and start tracking your dental hygiene. Beam Technologies, a year-old startup, is set to introduce a Bluetooth-enabled toothbrush and app that will launch next month. The toothbrush contains a sensor and Bluetooth radio that will send your brushing information to a smartphone app. Later versions will also track how long you spent in certain areas of the mouth and might add some kind of gamification layer to help encourage better brushing.

Alex X. Frommeyer, the CEO and founder of Beam, says the Beam Brush should hit shelves in early March and retail for about $50 for the base and $3 for a replaceable brush head. The Android app is ready, and the iOS app should be ready when the toothbrush launches or soon after. His startup, which is based in Louisville, Ky., is set to close on an initial round of funding in a few weeks. He didn’t disclose the amount but said it is less than $1 million.

Wait, what? Why put Bluetooth in my toothbrush?

The idea for creating a connected toothbrush came from a deeply personal and deeply practical place for Frommeyer. He had long been interested in the ways broadband and connectivity could upend the medical market, and had a personal connection to dentistry thanks to several family members working in the field. On a practical side, dentistry is an easier entry point into the medical field because the Food and Drug Administration has more lenient rules for approving toothbrushes. They are medical devices, but as long as someone submits the design to the FDA, he can sell it. That means Beam can sell its toothbrush without spending millions and waiting for FDA approval.

The first generation toothbrush may not appeal to those seeking the ultimate in data on their dental hygiene, as it will consist mostly of letting you track how long and when you brushed your teeth. To jazz up the experience, Frommeyer will let the app play songs and may incorporate a social element or game element into the process. At first this seems bizarre (although maybe not to those people who share their pictures of their dinners), but as a parent I would love one of these things so I can monitor how often my daughter brushes her teeth without standing right there in the bathroom.

Future iterations will also be able to show the user how long they spent in certain areas of the mouth. The sensor works via contact with the mouth, so it registers when the brush is scrubbing your teeth. I’d love for the app to become almost a reward system and prompt for good brushing, so when my daughter (or I) is brushing, the app could play a video or something fun, but if the brushing slacked off or spent too long in one place, the video stopped playing. I’m sure there are those of you who are scoffing at the idea that one can’t just suck it up for the two minutes it takes to brush your teeth, but I’m on board. After all, I already read a book or magazine while brushing, so I’m happy to be entertained while performing a mundane task.

Giving dentists your data opens up a can of worms

The promise of a connected toothbrush isn’t just a better brushing experience in Frommeyer’s eyes. He’d like patients to share that data with their dentists and hygienists. On an individual level that means better patient care (and you can still lie about flossing if you want), and on a macro level it could mean sharing aggregated data from millions of Beam Brush users, and finding patterns or shifts in how tooth decay occurs.

Of course medical data is a touchy subject and one that’s governed by laws such as HIPAA, but if this is a way to bring user-generated data from devices such as the beam Brush or a FitBit (see disclosure) into doctors’ offices, I’m interested. My own doctor showed absolutely no interest in the data collected from my FitBit, even though she does ask me to tell her what I’ve eaten in the last 24 hours every time I see her. Still, connected pedometers, sleep monitors and even apps that track blood pressure and other function are getting picked up by consumers, so maybe by the time I go to my next checkup my doctor will have changed her mind.

At that point, these types of devices might actually live up to the promise of helping change the medical industry, by offering better data, holding users accountable (perhaps through social sharing or merely with a doctor checking in on your progress) and letting people take charge of their health and habits. So as silly as a connected toothbrush might seem at first glance, it might be the lever that helps move the medical world.

Disclosure: Fitbit is backed by True Ventures, a venture capital firm that is an investor in the parent company of this blog, Giga Omni Media. Om Malik, founder of Giga Omni Media, is also a venture partner at True.

Self monitoring of activity levels using accelerometer activated devices like Striiv and FitBit is all the rage these days, and now the field is expanding into dentistry thanks to the Beam Brush. The device transmits data about its use via Bluetooth to a matching smartphone app that keeps track of when and for how long the brush was used for. Though the brush itself is not motorized, and it’s not clear what the benefits are of keeping brushing data around, it seems like a nifty tool to help you keep an eye on yourself or on your kids’ brushing habits.

GIGAOM is reporting that the brush will be available next month priced at $50 for the base and $3 for a replacement brush head. No word on whether there are plans for a wireless dental floss product.

Source : http://gigaom.com/2012/02/10/bits-meet-bite-check-out-the-connected-toothbrush/

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Dental CR Reader Featuring Tablet Support

Dental CR Reader Featuring Tablet Support

Dental CR Reader Featuring Tablet Support

3DISC Launches First Dental CR Reader Featuring Tablet Computer for Chairside Review and Patient Consultation

Compact, Fast FireCR Dental Reader To Be Introduced at Chicago Dental Society Midwinter Meeting

3DISC Imaging, a manufacturer of digital imaging products, has developed a compact, affordable imaging solution that provides rapid, high-quality reading of reusable dental imaging plates and is the first to feature a tablet computer—improving practice workflow and facilitating patient consultation at the chairside. The FireCR Dental Reader will be introduced at the Chicago Dental Society Midwinter Meeting in Chicago Feb. 23–25 (Booth #546).

The FireCR Dental Reader is uniquely positioned for chairside use in exam rooms by leveraging the flexibility of the innovative QuantorTab. This 10.1-inch tablet computer can be added to the PC and features easy-to-use touch screen software that provides dentists with immediate access to dental images, allowing for chairside diagnosis and interactive review with patients about treatment options.

The FireCR Dental system is small, elegant, and simple to operate, and is ideal for placement in each exam room. The reader—smaller than a shoebox—is DICOM 3.0 compatible with existing systems and uses low-cost, reusable imaging plates in a variety of sizes. These include bite-wing and intraoral dental imaging plates, which are easier and faster to position than intraoral digital sensors.

Sigrid Smitt-Jeppesen, chief executive officer of 3DISC Americas, said the company is one of the first to offer exam room-based CR readers for busy dental practices. “We’re setting a new standard in dental imaging by offering a reader and tablet computer that rapidly deliver high-quality digital images at the chairside, eliminating the need to leave the room to scan and review images on a central computer,” she said. “FireCR Dental Readers are compact and affordable, so dentists can distribute units in each examination room, increasing patient throughput and improving overall productivity of the practice.”

According to Thomas Weldingh, chief executive officer of 3DISC Europe, the FireCR Dental Reader features other automated processes that are key to efficient workflow. “These unique features include integrated UV sterilization and erase functions—the system sterilizes, scans, and clears the imaging plates so that they are immediately ready to use again,” Weldingh said. “This contrasts with other dental CR readers that are large and expensive central units, and which require practices to purchase an additional device to erase plates prior to reuse.”

Weldingh said that image quality is controlled by 3DISC’s QuantorDent Imaging Software, which optimizes image acquisition, processing, and management. Autocalibration technology also ensures stability and consistency—important benefits for busy dental practices.

The FireCR Dental Reader will be available worldwide in mid-2012. It is the newest addition to 3DISC’s growing line of compact, portable imaging products, which also includes the FireCR+ Medical Reader and FireCR+ Veterinary Reader, designed for use in hospitals, clinics, and medical, chiropractic, and veterinary practices.

About 3DISC Imaging

3DISC specializes in quality imaging products for the medical, dental, chiropractic, and veterinary markets. Its products are based on innovative concepts that provide highly productive, compact devices and software that deliver uncompromising image quality at an affordable price. The company has quickly developed strong distribution networks in the United States and Europe, making its leading-edge products available to a growing number of hospitals, clinics, specialty practices, and satellite facilities seeking flexibility that lets them grow.

FireCR Dental Reader

The FireCR Dental Reader is one of the first exam-room-based readers designed specifically for dental x-ray imaging in busy practices.

The CR system and its companion tablet computer that offers easy-to-use touch screen software, rapidly deliver high-quality digital images at the chairside eliminating the need to leave the room to scan and review on a central computer.

FireCR Dental Readers are compact and affordable, so dentists can distribute the computed radiography units in each exam room, increasing patient throughput and improving overall productivity of the practice.

FireCR_Dental_Scanner

Innovative QuantorTab Computer

The FireCR Dental Reader is uniquely positioned for chairside use in exam rooms by leveraging the flexibility of the innovative QuantorTab. This 10.1-inch tablet computer can be added to the PC and features easy-to-use touch screen software, allowing chairside diagnosis and interactive review with patients about treatment options. In other words, dentists are provided with immediate access to the dental x-ray images.

QuantorTab

A Small, Elegant & Simple CR System

The dental CR system is small, elegant, and simple to operate, and is ideal for placement in each exam room. The CR reader – smaller than a shoebox – is DICOM 3.0 compatible with existing systems and uses low-cost, reusable imaging plates in a variety of sizes. These include easy-to-position bite-wing and intraoral dental imaging plates that are easier and faster to position than intraoral digital sensors.

Unique Features

By offering a CR reader and tablet computer that rapidly delivers high-quality digital images at the chairside, 3DISC imaging is setting a new standard in dental x-ray imaging.

The FireCR Dental Reader includes other unique features: A built-in erase function eliminates the need to purchase an additional device to erase imaging plates prior to reuse, and an integrated UV capability sterilizes imaging plates that may be contaminated during handling, ensuring a hygienic workflow.

QuantorDent Imaging Software

The FireCR Dental Reader is managed by the intuitive, easy-to-use QuantorDent Imaging Software.

The software optimizes dental x-ray image acquisition, processing, and management. Autocalibration technology ensures stability and consistency – important benefits for busy dental practices, depending on the reliability of the CR system they use.

Affordable, Fast ROI

The FireCR Dental reader provides fast return on investment by delivering high-quality image processing, improved productivity, and the elimination of film processing costs – at an affordable price.

In contrast to more expensive dental CR readers that take years to provide a return on investment, FireCR Dental users can achieve a return in just 3-6 months, depending on imaging volume.

Market Your Practice

Show the community that your practice offers the latest in dental x-ray imaging technology for improved patient results – including the first tablet computer designed to facilitate patient education and consultation at the chairside.

Talk to 3DISC today about leveraging your use of the FireCR Dental Reader and QuantorTab computer to help market your practice.

FireCR Dental CR Reader Technology Provides Superior Image Quality

For facilities evaluating CR reader options, ensuring high-quality images is paramount. 3DISC CR solutions are the result of a three-year development process, spearheaded by a team of researchers with wide-ranging experience in all facets of imaging technology.

In addition, consistent dental x-ray imaging quality is ensured by autocalibration technology that continually monitors and adjusts the CR readers to ensure a level beam path across the surface of the image plate for each and every image scanned. As a result, 3DISC CR readers offer excellent stability and repeatability.

The FireCR Dental Reader will be available worldwide in the second quarter of 2012.

3DISC Imaging inc., Dulles, VA, a manufacturer of digital imaging products, has developed a compact imaging device that provides reading of reusable dental imaging plates. The FireCR Dental Reader features a tablet computer to immediately view and share imaging results at the chair side and features touch screen software that provides dentists with immediate access to the history of the patient’s dental images.

The reader is DICOM 3.0 compatible with existing systems and uses low-cost, reusable imaging plates in a variety of sizes, including bite-wing and intraoral dental imaging plates.

Sigrid Smitt-Jeppesen, CEO of 3DISC Americas, commented in the press release:

We’re setting a new standard in dental imaging by offering a reader and tablet computer that rapidly deliver high-quality digital images at the chairside, eliminating the need to leave the room to scan and review images on a central computer. FireCR Dental Readers are compact and affordable, so dentists can distribute units in each examination room, increasing patient throughput and improving overall productivity of the practice.

The FireCR Dental Reader will be introduced at the Chicago Dental Society Midwinter Meeting in Chicago Feb. 23–25 and will be available worldwide in mid-2012.

Source : http://www.3discimaging.com/3disc-launches-first-dental-cr-reader-featuring-tablet-computer/

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New Tongue Drive System Uses Dental Retainer to Operate Wheelchair

New Tongue Drive System Uses Dental Retainer to Operate Wheelchair

New Tongue Drive System Uses Dental Retainer to Operate Wheelchair

Mouth Gear: Tongue Drive System Goes Inside the Mouth to Improve Performance and User Comfort

The Tongue Drive System is getting less conspicuous and more capable. Tongue Drive is a wireless device that enables people with high-level spinal cord injuries to operate a computer and maneuver an electrically powered wheelchair simply by moving their tongues.

Tongue-Drive-Maysam-Ghovanloo-Retainer-Commands

The circuitry for the new intraoral Tongue Drive System developed at Georgia Tech is embedded in this dental retainer worn in the mouth (right). The system interprets commands from seven different tongue movements to operate a computer (left) or maneuver an electrically powered wheelchair. (Click image for high-resolution version. Credit: Maysam Ghovanloo)

The newest prototype of the system allows users to wear an inconspicuous dental retainer embedded with sensors to control the system. The sensors track the location of a tiny magnet attached to the tongues of users. In earlier versions of the Tongue Drive System, the sensors that track the movement of the magnet on the tongue were mounted on a headset worn by the user.

“By moving the sensors inside the mouth, we have created a Tongue Drive System with increased mechanical stability and comfort that is nearly unnoticeable,” said Maysam Ghovanloo, an associate professor in the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

The new intraoral Tongue Drive System was presented and demonstrated on Feb. 20, 2012 at the IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference in San Francisco. Development of the system is supported by the National Science Foundation, the Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation, and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at the National Institutes of Health.

Tongue-Drive-Maysam-Ghovanloo-Retainer-Circuitry

The dental appliance for the new intraoral Tongue Drive System contains magnetic field sensors mounted on its four corners that detect movement of a tiny magnet attached to the tongue. It also includes a rechargeable lithium-ion battery and an induction coil to charge the battery. (Click image for high-resolution version. Credit: Maysam Ghovanloo)

The new dental appliance contains magnetic field sensors mounted on its four corners that detect movement of a tiny magnet attached to the tongue. It also includes a rechargeable lithium-ion battery and an induction coil to charge the battery. The circuitry fits in the space available on the retainer, which sits against the roof of the mouth and is covered with an insulating, water-resistant material and vacuum-molded inside standard dental acrylic.

“One of the problems we encountered with the earlier headset was that it could shift on a user’s head and the system would need to be recalibrated,” explained Ghovanloo. “Because the dental appliance is worn inside the mouth and molded from dental impressions to fit tightly around an individual’s teeth with clasps, it is protected from these types of disturbances.”

When in use, the output signals from the sensors are wirelessly transmitted to an iPod or iPhone. Software installed on the iPod interprets the user’s tongue commands by determining the relative position of the magnet with respect to the array of sensors in real-time. This information is used to control the movements of a cursor on the computer screen or to substitute for the joystick function in a powered wheelchair.

Tongue-Drive-Maysam-Ghovanloo-iPod-iPhone-Interface

Georgia Tech researchers designed this universal interface for the intraoral Tongue Drive System that attaches directly to a standard electric wheelchair. The interface boasts multiple functions: it not only holds the iPod, but also wirelessly receives the sensor data and delivers it to the iPod, connects the iPod to the wheelchair, charges the iPod, and includes a container where the dental retainer can be placed at night for charging. (Click image for high-resolution version. Credit: Maysam Ghovanloo)

Ghovanloo and his team have also created a universal interface for the intraoral Tongue Drive System that attaches directly to a standard electric wheelchair. The interface boasts multiple functions: it not only holds the iPod, but also wirelessly receives the sensor data and delivers it to the iPod, connects the iPod to the wheelchair, charges the iPod, and includes a container where the dental retainer can be placed at night for charging.

In preliminary tests, the intraoral device exhibited an increased signal-to-noise ratio, even when a smaller magnet was placed on the tongue. That improved sensitivity could allow additional commands to be programmed into the system. The existing Tongue Drive System that uses a headset interprets commands from seven different tongue movements.

The ability to train the system with additional commands – as many commands as an individual can comfortably remember – and having all of the commands available to the user at the same time are significant advantages over the common sip-n-puff device that acts as a simple switch controlled by sucking or blowing through a straw.

The researchers plan to begin testing the usability of the intraoral Tongue Drive System by able-bodied individuals soon and then move onto clinical trials to test its usability by people with high-level spinal cord injuries.

In recent months, Ghovanloo and his team have recruited 11 individuals with high-level spinal cord injuries to test the headset version of the system at the Atlanta-based Shepherd Center and the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. Trial participants received a clinical tongue piercing and tongue stud that contained a tiny magnet embedded in the upper ball. They repeated two test sessions per week during a six-week period that assessed their ability to use the Tongue Drive System to operate a computer and navigate an electric wheelchair through an obstacle course.

“During the trials, users have been able to learn to use the system, move the computer cursor quicker and with more accuracy, and maneuver through the obstacle course faster and with fewer collisions,” said Ghovanloo. “We expect even better results in the future when trial participants begin to use the intraoral Tongue Drive System on a daily basis.”

Georgia Tech graduate students Abner Ayala-Acevedo, Xueliang Huo, Jeonghee Kim, Hangue Park and Xueli Xiao, and former postdoctoral fellow Benoit Gosselin also contributed to this work.

This project was supported in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) (Award Nos. CBET-0828882, IIS-0953107 and IIS-0803184) and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (Award No. RC1 EB010915-01). The content is solely the responsibility of the principal investigators and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NSF or NIH.

A year ago we wrote about a new tongue controller designed to give quadriplegics the ability to operate external devices like wheelchairs and computers. Now results from a clinical trial testing the capabilities of the interface for the severely handicapped have been presented at the annual meeting of the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA), and they show that the technology is intuitive and precise enough for patients to quickly become acquainted with it in a short period of time.

3mnag42 Tongue Controller Looks Promising For Paralyzed

At the beginning of each trial, Ghovanloo and graduate students Xueliang Huo and Chih-wen Cheng attached a small magnet — the size of a grain of rice — to the participant’s tongue with tissue adhesive. Movement of this magnetic tracer was detected by an array of magnetic field sensors mounted on wireless headphones worn by the subject. The sensor output signals were wirelessly transmitted to a portable computer, which was carried on the wheelchair.

The signals were processed to determine the relative motion of the magnet with respect to the array of sensors in real-time. This information was then used to control the movements of the cursor on a computer screen or to substitute for the joystick function in a powered wheelchair.

Ghovanloo chose the tongue to operate the system because unlike hands and feet, which are controlled by the brain through the spinal cord, the tongue is directly connected to the brain by a cranial nerve that generally escapes damage in severe spinal cord injuries or neuromuscular diseases.

Before using the Tongue Drive system, the subjects trained the computer to understand how they would like to move their tongues to indicate different commands. A unique set of specific tongue movements was tailored for each individual based on the user’s abilities, oral anatomy and personal preferences. For the first computer test, the user issued commands to move the computer mouse left and right. Using these commands, each subject played a computer game that required moving a paddle horizontally to prevent a ball from hitting the bottom of the screen.

After adding two more commands to their repertoire — up and down — the subjects were asked to move the mouse cursor through an on-screen maze as quickly and accurately as possible.

Then the researchers added two more commands — single and double mouse clicks — to provide the subject with complete mouse functionality. When a randomly selected symbol representing one of the six commands appeared on the computer screen, the subject was instructed to issue that command within a specified time period. Each subject completed 40 trials for each time period.

After the computer sessions, the subjects were ready for the wheelchair driving exercise. Using forward, backward, right, left and stop/neutral tongue commands, the subjects maneuvered a powered wheelchair through an obstacle course.

The obstacle course contained 10 turns and was longer than a professional basketball court. Throughout the course, the users had to perform navigation tasks such as making a U-turn, backing up and fine-tuning the direction of the wheelchair in a limited space. Subjects were asked to navigate through the course as fast as they could, while avoiding collisions.

ton33234 Tongue Controller Looks Promising For Paralyzed

Each subject operated the powered wheelchair using two different control strategies: discrete mode, which was designed for novice users, and continuous mode for more experienced users. In discrete mode, if the user issued the command to move forward and then wanted to turn right, the user would have to stop the wheelchair before issuing the command to turn right. The stop command was selected automatically when the tongue returned to its resting position, bringing the wheelchair to a standstill.

“Discrete mode is a safety feature particularly for novice users, but it reduces the agility of the wheelchair movement,” explained Ghovanloo. “In continuous mode, however, the user is allowed to steer the powered wheelchair to the left or right as it is moving forward and backward, thus making it possible to follow a curve.”

Each subject completed the course at least twice using each strategy while the researchers recorded the navigation time and number of collisions. Using discrete control, the average speed for the five subjects was 5.2 meters per minute and the average number of collisions was 1.8. Using continuous control, the average speed was 7.7 meters per minute and the average number of collisions was 2.5.

It’s been a while since we covered news about the tongue controller which enables quadriplegics the ability to operate wheelchairs and other devices by moving their tongues. The newest prototype of the Tongue Drive System makes use of a dental retainer with sensors to help control the system. tongue controlled wheelchair New Tongue Drive System Uses Dental Retainer to Operate WheelchairThe embedded sensors within the retainer track the movements of a small magnet attached to the tongue.

Problems related to using a headset as the magnet sensor in the earlier version of the system required the team to try a wireless dental retainer. The retainer is powered by a rechargeable lithium-ion battery and makes use of magnetic field sensors on the four corners of the device to track the magnet’s movements. The sensors transmit their information to an iPod or iPhone and special software enables the mobile device to control the movements of a cursor on a computer screen or to work as a substitute for a joystick in a powered wheelchair.

The Tongue Drive System can be made to interface with any standard electric wheelchair. Since the new version has an improved sensitivity, additional tongue movement commands can be programmed into the system. Earlier tests using the older version of the system have been done with 11 patients with high-level spinal cord injuries. These tests showed that after getting used to the device, the people in the study group were able to operate their wheelchairs and computer cursors faster and with more accuracy. The researchers expect even better results from the intraoral Tongue Drive System.

Source : http://gtresearchnews.gatech.edu/tonguedrive3/

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