Archive for ‘Neurology’

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Lens-Free Automated Cell Counting System for Diagnosis of Meningitis

Lens-Free Automated Cell Counting System for Diagnosis of Meningitis

fluid lens-free microscopy for meningitis

 

French researchers from Grenoble Alpes University and Aix-Marseille University have developed an automated lens-free microscopy technique for counting and telling apart red and white blood cells withing cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid, gathered through a spinal tap, should be clear and have few, if any, blood cells within it. Patients with meningitis, due to inflammation and disruption of the membranes enveloping the brain, have white blood cells seeping into the cerebrospinal fluid (>10/μL). Doing a cell count on a sample of the fluid goes a long way toward a diagnosis.

The new microscopy system takes less than 50 μL of cerebrospinal fluid and automatically counts the cells within. Though manual counting using a traditional microscope is quite effective, the small size and automated nature of the new system allows it to be implemented for point-of-care diagnostics.

The lenseless system consists of a CMOS image sensor on top of which the sample is placed. A light plane wave illuminates the sample, producing a holographic image that the sensor captures. This allows the sensor to see the sample and a computer program is then used to interpret the image into a cell count.

Study in journal Scientific ReportsCerebrospinal fluid lens-free microscopy: a new tool for the laboratory diagnosis of meningitis…

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NeuroMetrix Quell Neurostimulator for Day and Night Use Now Cleared in Europe

NeuroMetrix Quell Neurostimulator for Day and Night Use Now Cleared in Europe

quell

 

Quell, the pain-reducing neurostimulator that can be worn at night from NeuroMetrix, a Waltham, MA firm, received European regulatory approval to be marketed direct to consumers. The device, which we reviewed earlier this year, has the only FDA clearance in the United States to be used by consumers while sleeping to help manage pain. It features an accelerometer that recognizes when patient is in bed and the device adjusts therapy so it doesn’t keep patients awake, and yet disrupts pain signals. The Quell connects to a smartphone or tablet via Bluetooth, and can be controlled wirelessly using its own app.quell_device

It can be wrapped around the back, legs, or arms, to target whichever source of pain needs attention. We tested it ourselves and had a couple folks with chronic pain try it as well. This was certainly not a scientific study and you should really consult with your physician before trying the Quell, but do check out our reviewto get a good idea of this device.

https://youtu.be/1st-ktEmsYMSonar-System-for-blind

Flashbacks: Hands-On With Quell Wearable Pain Relief Device…Quell Smartphone Controlled Pain-Relieving Neurostimulator…More About Quell, NeuroMetrix’s Smartphone-Connected Neurostimulator…

Product page: Quell…

Via: NeuroMetrix…

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Scientists Built Blood-Brain Barrier On-a-Chip to Help Develop Neuro Drugs, Understand Brain Diseases

Scientists Built Blood-Brain Barrier On-a-Chip to Help Develop Neuro Drugs, Understand Brain Diseases

blood-brain-barrier

 

At Vanderbilt University researchers have developed a mimic of the blood-brain barrier in the form of a microfluidic device. To show a proof-of-concept of this “organ-on-chip” technology, the team studied how inflammation affects the blood-brain barrier continuously for an extended period of time, while previous approaches have only provided discrete snapshots of the process.

vanderbilt-organ-on-a-chipThe device is called NeuroVascular Unit (NVU) on a chip and it consists of a tiny space separated by a porous membrane. On top of the membrane is the “brain” side and the bottom is the “blood” side. Each of the sides has input and output tubes driven by micropumps that can sample the insides and deliver nutrients, drugs, pathogens, and anything else involved in an experiment.

To actually create a true blood-brain barrier, human endothelial cells are introduced on the “blood” side after flipping the device. Then fluid is pumped through the chamber with the cells. Interestingly, the cells begin aligning parallel with the direction of flow, creating an even layer of organized cells that resemble the structure of the blood-brain barrier. After two days of this, the cells are aligned and attached to the membrane separating the chambers. The device is flipped and astrocytes, pericytes, and excitatory neurons, which are also present in the barrier, are then added to the “brain” side of the device. The newly added cells slowly move through the membrane separating the chambers, interacting and sticking to the endothelial cells on the other side, resulting in perhaps the closest laboratory copy of the blood-brain barrier.

Here’s a Vanderbilt video discussing the new device:

Via: Vanderbilt…

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Dilatation Catheters Market Size, Share, Growth, Trends, Demand and Forecast

Dilatation Catheters Market Size, Share, Growth, Trends, Demand and Forecast

AR172

 

Dilatation Catheters Market report focuses on the major drivers and restraints for the key players. It also provides granular analysis of the market share, segmentation, revenue forecasts and geographic regions of the market. The Dilatation Catheters Market research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Dilatation Catheters Industry.

In depth analysis of Dilatation Catheters Market is a crucial thing for various stakeholders like investors, CEOs, traders, suppliers and others. The Dilatation Catheters Market research report is a resource, which provides technical and financial details of the industry.

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To begin with, the report elaborates the Dilatation Catheters Market overview. Various definitions and classification of the industry, applications of the industry and chain structure are given. Present day status of the Dilatation Catheters Market in key regions is stated and industry policies and news are analysed.

Next part of the Dilatation Catheters Market Industry analysis report speaks about the manufacturing process. The process is analysed thoroughly with respect three points, viz. raw material and equipment suppliers, various manufacturing associated costs (material cost, labour cost, etc.) and the actual process.

Following are the key players covered in this Dilatation Catheters Market research report:

  • Abbott Vascular
  • Medtronic
  • Boston Scientific
  • Biosensors International
  • Terumo Medical
  • Lepu Medical
  • Bard Medical
  • COOK Medical
  • Rontis Medical
  • OrbusNeich

No. of Report Pages: 101
Price of Report (Single User Licence): $ 2900

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• Dilatation Catheters Market Competition by Manufacturers
• Dilatation Catheters Production, Revenue (Value) by Region (2011-2021)
• Dilatation Catheters Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2011-2021)
• Dilatation Catheters Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type
• Dilatation Catheters Market Analysis by Application
• Dilatation Catheters Manufacturers Profiles/Analysis
• Dilatation Catheters Manufacturing Cost Analysis
• Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers
• Dilatation Catheters Market Forecast (2016-2021)

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Further in the Dilatation Catheters Market Industry Analysis report, the Dilatation Catheters Market is examined for price, cost and gross. These three points are analysed for types, companies and regions. In continuation with this data sale price is for various types, applications and region is also included. The Dilatation Catheters Market for major regions is given. Additionally, type wise and application wise consumption figures are also given.

Scope of the Dilatation Catheters Industry on the basis of region:

  • North America
  • Europe
  • China
  • Japan
  • Southeast Asia
  • India

With the help of supply and consumption data, gap between these two is also explained.

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To provide information on competitive landscape, this report includes detailed profiles of Dilatation Catheters Market key players. For each player, product details, capacity, price, cost, gross and revenue numbers are given. Their contact information is provided for better understanding.

In this Dilatation Catheters Market report analysis, traders and distributors analysis is given along with contact details. For material and equipment suppliers also, contact details are given. New investment feasibility analysis and Dilatation Catheters Market Industry growth is included in the report.

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Lucid M1 Brain Damage Assessment Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound System Now Available

Lucid M1 Brain Damage Assessment Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound System Now Available

neural-analytics

 

Having recently received FDA clearance, Neural Analytics, a company out of Los Angeles, California, is now making available its Lucid M1 utrasound brain damage assessment system. The device uses transcranial Doppler ultrasound to assess blood flow within the brain and to detect damaged blood vessels. It’s intended to quickly help triage patients and speed toward diagnosis and treatment.

The Windows device is battery powered and has a touchscreen display for controls and data visualization. The algorithms the Lucid M1 uses were developed at and licensed from UCLA.

“Over the last several years, the field of interventional neurology has witnessed an innovation explosion that has fundamentally changed the way that we treat stroke to improve patient outcomes. SVIN [Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology] has set an ambitious goal to treat every eligible stroke patients emergently with mechanical thrombectomy, but this can only be achieved if stroke patients get access to hospitals with mechanical thrombectomy capability within six hours of their symptoms,” said Dr. Dileep Yavagal, MD, Past President of SVIN, in a statement. “We are gratified that Neural Analytics will support SVIN on this important initiative as their future technologies will assist us in determining if a patient is suffering from a brain blood flow disorder like stroke, potentially leading to faster treatment and better overall outcomes for these patients.”

Flashback: Lucid M1 Ultrasound Brain Damage Assessment System Cleared by FDA…

Link: Neural Analytics technology page…

Via: Neural Analytics…

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Self-Driving Scooter Helps Liberate Elderly and Disabled

Self-Driving Scooter Helps Liberate Elderly and Disabled

smart-scooter

 

Researchers from MIT, National University of Singapore, and the Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) have developed hardware and software to control self-driving cars and golf carts. Now the same technology has been integrated into a mobility scooter, allowing disabled and elderly folks to scoot around without contstantly operating the controls.

smarter-scooterHealthy people walk around without spending too much time or attention on the task. It’s almost sub-conscious for most of us. A typical motorized scooter, on the other hand, requires watching the road, anticipating the angle at which to attack curbs, and avoiding other people walking by. Indoors, this can be even more challenging due to tighter spaces and more people walking nearby.

The smart scooter manages the navigation and obstacle avoidance all on its own, even indoors, as recently conducted tests have shown. This can be a serious benefit for disabled people wishing to live independent lives, as the technology takes over nearly the entire aspect of personal mobility. One can imagine the scooter automatically loading itself into a van and the self-driving van then taking the person to their destination.

An interesting aspect of the software that powers the scooter is that it learns as it’s being used. This accumulated knowledge of various environments and how to negotiate them can be shared among other scooters, essentially improving their performance without relying on human interference.

Here’s a video demonstrating the self-driving scooter in action:

Via: MIT…

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Locked-In ALS Patient Types via Wireless Brain Implant

Locked-In ALS Patient Types via Wireless Brain Implant

ecog-implant

 

Researchers at University Medical Center Utrecht in The Netherlands managed to enable a severely paralyzed ALS patient with locked-in syndrome to type words on a computer screen by thinking what letters her hand wants to touch. Previously, such advanced brain-computer interface systems required wires to power the implants and to read and amplify the signals they’re gathering. The system the UMC Utrecht team used utilizes a wireless transmitter, helping to prevent infection, making it more comfortable, and easier to manage for her caretakers.

An electrode array was positioned onto the motor cortex and wires from it were run down to the wireless transmitter placed similarly to a pacemaker. A nearby antenna on the patient provided communication wih the implanted system, and a computer did the signal processing.

The result is that the woman in the study was able to type two letters per minute, but this is just the beginning. Since she normally relies on eye tracking to communicate, she managed begin utilizing both interface modes at the same time to speed up her typing.

Check out this short video demonstrating the technology:

 

Study in The New England Journal of MedicineFully Implanted Brain–Computer Interface in a Locked-In Patient with ALS…

Source: UMC Utrecht…

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Monkeys with Spinal Cord Injuries Walk Thanks to Wireless Brain and Spine Implants

Monkeys with Spinal Cord Injuries Walk Thanks to Wireless Brain and Spine Implants

activa-brain-implant

 

Scientists from Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland, Brown University,Medtronic, and Fraunhofer ICT-IMM in Germany have joined forces and pulled off an amazing achievement of getting rhesus monkeys with spinal cord injury to walk again. There have been impressive achievements in the past of bypassing lesions in the spine that prevent signals from passing between the brain and leg muscles, but previous results have been quite limited.

The new research involved delivering epidural electrical stimulation based on signals gathered in the motor cortex. An intracortical microelectrode array was placed in the motor cortex of the brain responsible for leg motion. A spinal cord stimulator consisting of an epidural implant and a pulse generator were linked wirelessly to the brain implant via a special control system. The brain implant triggered the stimulator to activate specific muscles in such a way as to produce a fairly normal walking gait. Because the implants had a rather impressive spatial resolution, the resulting stimulation was accurate enough to activate individual muscles of the leg in the right order and just in time.

From the study abstract in Nature:

As early as six days post-injury and without prior training of the monkeys, the brain–spine interface restored weight-bearing locomotion of the paralysed leg on a treadmill and overground. The implantable components integrated in the brain–spine interface have all been approved for investigational applications in similar human research, suggesting a practical translational pathway for proof-of-concept studies in people with spinal cord injury.

Here’s a video explaining the research in greater detail:

Study in NatureA brain–spine interface alleviating gait deficits after spinal cord injury in primates…

 

Via: Brown University…

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Clarius App-Powered Wireless Ultrasounds Win FDA Clearance

Clarius App-Powered Wireless Ultrasounds Win FDA Clearance

clarius_outdoors-2

 

Clarius Mobile Health, a company out of Burnaby, British Columbia, just won FDA clearance for its C3 and L7 Clarius Wireless Ultrasound Scanners. The devices use just about any iOS or Android phone or tablet as the display. A proprietary Clarius app is used to control the transducers and display the visualizations. The transducers feature automatic gain and frequency settings, helping to quickly locate and view the target anatomy. The app provides options to manage the images, as well as to share them securely via the firm’s secure “Clarius Cloud”.

clarius-ultrasound

The exterior of the transducers is made of magnesium metal, allowing it to be rugged enough to be used in and outside the clinic. Inside is a rechargeable battery and an extra one is provided with every set.

The Clarius C3 is intended for abdominal and lung exams, while the Clarius L7 is meant for needle guidance and for imaging shallow anatomy. Both are now available for purchase directly from Clarius.

Here’s a quick promo video for the Clarius ultrasound:

Product page: Clarius…

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Non-Invasive Brain-Computer Interface for Complex Control of Robotic Arm

Non-Invasive Brain-Computer Interface for Complex Control of Robotic Arm

smart-robot-eeg

 

Advanced brain-computer interfaces that can be used to control the complex motion of powered robotic arms and hands have relied on electrodes implanted in the brain. These have serious downsides that currently make them impractical for use outside of scientific research. A team at University of Minnesota has now created a control system that relies on traditional non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG) to allow people to use a robotic arm to grasp, move, and place objects in front of them. We’ve seen attempts at this before, which were quite impressive but haven’t achieved the natural and seemingly easy movements demonstrated by the Minnesota team.

The study involved eight volunteers who learned how to move the robotic arm by simply thinking about it. This process involved different iterations at first involving moving a mouse on a screen and later moving up to complex 3D motion of the robot. Eventually they were able to stack objects on a three-level shelf with reasonable accuracy, certainly an impressive feat that gives severely disabled people a preview of what they should expect to be doing in the not too distant future.

Here’s a University of Minnesota video showing off the capabilities of the new system:

Study in Scientific ReportsNoninvasive Electroencephalogram Based Control of a Robotic Arm for Reach and Grasp Tasks…

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