Archive for ‘Obstetrics and Gynecology’

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NICE recommends Bispectral Index EEG-based monitor for measuring depth of anaesthesia

NICE recommends Bispectral Index EEG-based monitor for measuring depth of anaesthesia

Covidien, a leading global provider of healthcare products and recognized innovator in patient monitoring and respiratory care devices, today announced that the UK-based National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommends the use of electroencephalography (EEG)-based monitors, specifically the Bispectral Index (BIS™) monitor, as an option for measuring depth of anaesthesia.

“The NICE assessment and recommendations provide clear guidance to anaesthesia professionals regarding the use of depth of anaesthesia monitoring that will greatly improve patient care and safety for individuals at higher risk for adverse reactions to general anaesthesia”

The recommendation specifies that the BIS monitor should be used with all patients receiving total intravenous anaesthesia and during any type of general anaesthesia with patients considered at high risk of adverse outcomes. This includes patients at high risk of unintended awareness and patients at high risk of excessively deep anaesthesia. The Covidien BIS Brain Monitoring System helps clinicians assess patient consciousness levels through electrical activity in the brain.

The NICE guidance specifically recommends the BIS system as an option in the care of patients at high risk for unintended awareness (consciousness) or excessively deep anaesthesia levels during surgery. Both can lead to serious short- and long-term health risks, including post-traumatic stress disorder, heart attack, and stroke and in older patients, cognitive dysfunction or “brain fog.”

Patients at high risk for unintended awareness include older patients as well as those with morbid obesity, poor cardiovascular function, presence of two or more chronic diseases, high opiate or alcohol use, intravenous anaesthesia techniques and certain types of surgical procedures.

The recommendation for BIS monitoring as an option in patients receiving total intravenous anaesthesia was made because it is cost effective and because it is not possible to measure anaesthetic concentration in these patients.

“The NICE assessment and recommendations provide clear guidance to anaesthesia professionals regarding the use of depth of anaesthesia monitoring that will greatly improve patient care and safety for individuals at higher risk for adverse reactions to general anaesthesia,” said Scott Kelley, M.D., Chief Medical Officer, Respiratory and Monitoring Solutions, Covidien. “With BIS brain monitoring technology, anaesthetists, in combination with their other standard practices, can accurately determine consciousness and tailor anaesthesia dosing to ensure optimal patient experience and minimize risks.”

The NICE Diagnostics Guidance is based on extensive clinical evidence and an assessment report prepared by the University of Southampton’s Southampton Health Technology Assessment Centre and input from a number of professional organisations and device manufacturers. Other brain monitoring technologies assessed as part of the clinical research include the GE Healthcare E-Entropy and Schiller Narcotrend-Compact M.

Source : http://www.news-medical.net/news/20121123/NICE-recommends-Bispectral-Index-EEG-based-monitor-for-measuring-depth-of-anaesthesia.aspx

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Zamzee Tackles Childhood Obesity: Interview with CEO Lance Henderson

Zamzee Tackles Childhood Obesity: Interview with CEO Lance Henderson

Zamzee Tackles Childhood Obesity: Interview with CEO Lance Henderson

New technologies offer the potential to change sedentary behavior among adolescents by tapping into kids’ affinity for digital games. But research on the behavioral and biological impact of such products has been limited, raising the question: Do they really work?

New data announced today by HopeLab show that Zamzee®, a pocket-sized activity meter that connects to a motivational game-based website, increased physical activity levels in kids by 59% over a six-month period and reduced biological risk factors for heart disease and diabetes. These results from a study sponsored by HopeLab and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation were announced September 23 at the 2012 Obesity Society Annual Meeting in San Antonio, Texas.

The randomized, controlled study evaluated the effects of Zamzee, developed by HopeLab, in a diverse sample of 448 middle-school-aged adolescents enrolled from urban, suburban and rural environments across the U.S. Half of the study participants used Zamzee, an activity meter that measures movement using a three-axis accelerometer and uploads physical activity data to a motivational game-based website. The website allows kids to view their activity levels, earn points for movement, achieve goals, and select rewards. The other half of study participants in the control group received a Zamzee activity meter that uploaded physical activity data but had no access to the motivational website.

In the study, kids using the Zamzee activity meter and website showed an average increase in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of 59% – or approximately 45 additional minutes of MVPA per week – compared to the control group. This impact persisted throughout the six-month study period. Significant increases in physical activity were seen across a number of key groups at risk for sedentary behavior, including a 27% increase in MVPA among overweight participants (BMI >25) and a 103% increase in MVPA among girls.

In addition, study data also showed that Zamzee had a positive effect on key biological factors associated with diseases linked to sedentary behavior. Over six months, participants who used Zamzee showed reduced gains in LDL (“bad”) cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease. Participants who consistently used Zamzee also showed improved blood sugar control (HbA1c), a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.

“This study shows that technology is not just part of the problem; it can also be part of the solution in helping kids be more physically active,” said Steve Cole, Ph.D., Vice President of Research and Development at HopeLab and Professor of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles. “These results also show that Zamzee can increase physical activity enough to improve some of the key biological processes that underlie the long-term disease risks associated with a sedentary lifestyle.”

Sedentary behavior is a major problem of national importance. There are approximately 20 million tweens and young teens in the U.S., and research shows that sedentary behavior is putting this generation at risk for serious and costly long-term health problems, including obesity, diabetes, heart disease and cancer.

In 2010, based on early research indicating the positive impact of Zamzee, HopeLab launched Zamzee as a social enterprise experiment aimed at developing scalable, sustainable ways to distribute Zamzee and increase physical activity in sedentary kids and kids at risk for sedentary behavior. HopeLab continues to partner with Zamzee in ongoing research and distribution activities to support the social mission of the product. The Zamzee product is now available to the public at [http://www.zamzee.com.

“As more and more people discover Zamzee, we consistently hear from kids and families that it’s a fun, engaging way to make physical activity a regular part of their daily lives,” said Lance Henderson, CEO of Zamzee. “These new data show that Zamzee is also an effective way to improve health, which is inspiring to us and our partners as we work to put Zamzee into the hands of kids and families across the U.S.”

About HopeLab

HopeLab is a non-profit organization founded in 2001 by Board Chair Pam Omidyar. HopeLab harnesses the power and appeal of technology to improve the health of young people. HopeLab applies a research-based, customer-focused development model to create products that positively impact health behavior. HopeLab is part of the Omidyar Group philanthropic enterprises. For more information, please visit http://www.hopelab.org.

About Zamzee

Zamzee is a social enterprise on a mission to make it easier for tweens and families to be more physically active. The Zamzee meter and motivational website is the result of several years of research and design based on feedback from kids and families. The Zamzee meter is sold for $29.95; access to the Zamzee website is free of charge. Zamzee was established in 2010 by HopeLab, a nonprofit research organization that uses the power and appeal of technology to improve the health of kids. Initial research and development of Zamzee was conducted by HopeLab, with support from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. For more information, please visit

Most of us know by now that 2 out of 3 adults in the US are overweight or obese. Alarmingly, that figure is 1 out of 3 among children. On the positive side, we’ve reached a stage where technology is transitioning from being the problem (e.g. TV, cars, prepackaged foods) to being the solution (e.g. activity monitors, mHealth, exercise video games). (For a more thorough discussion of this transition, read this author’s NEJM Bicentennial essay).

Medgadget covers a number of innovative tools that may improve healthy lifestyle behaviors, from an augmented reality diet to a device that can monitor vegetable consumption. Most of these tools, such as the Fitbit or Withings weight scale, have been targeted towards adults. An activity monitor called the Zamzee is a new kid (pun intended) on the block that focuses on getting children and teens more active, and the company making it just announced on Monday some impressive results to show that it actually works:

The randomized, controlled study evaluated the effects of Zamzee, developed by HopeLab, in a diverse sample of 448 middle-school-aged adolescents enrolled from urban, suburban and rural environments across the U.S. Half of the study participants used Zamzee, an activity meter that measures movement using a three-axis accelerometer and uploads physical activity data to a motivational game-based website. The website allows kids to view their activity levels, earn points for movement, achieve goals, and select rewards. The other half of study participants in the control group received a Zamzee activity meter that uploaded physical activity data but had no access to the motivational website.

In the study, kids using the Zamzee activity meter and website showed an average increase in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of 59% – or approximately 45 additional minutes of MVPA per week – compared to the control group. This impact persisted throughout the six-month study period. Significant increases in physical activity were seen across a number of key groups at risk for sedentary behavior, including a 27% increase in MVPA among overweight participants (BMI >25) and a 103% increase in MVPA among girls.

In addition, study data also showed that Zamzee had a positive effect on key biological factors associated with diseases linked to sedentary behavior. Over six months, participants who used Zamzee showed reduced gains in LDL (“bad”) cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease. Participants who consistently used Zamzee also showed improved blood sugar control (HbA1c), a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.

Lance Henderson Zamzee Tackles Childhood Obesity: Interview with CEO Lance Henderson

Medgadget had the opportunity to interview Lance Henderson, the CEO of Zamzee, about their product, its advantages and disadvantages, and where he sees it going.

Shiv Gaglani, Medgadget: Where did the idea for Zamzee come from?

Lance Henderson, CEO of Zamzee: Zamzee was born at HopeLab, a nonprofit dedicated to using technology to improve the health and life of young people with chronic illnesses. Given the enourmous problems caused by sedentary behavior in America, HopeLab decided that the best way to effect the biggest change on this crisis was by making Zamzee a social enterprise.

Medgadget: How does the Zamzee work?

Henderson: Zamzee uses a tri-axis accelerometer to track activity, and a website that make exercise fun. For more about the research that designed Zamzee, you can read this blog post.

Medgadget: What are the advantages of using Zamzee as opposed to another pedometer? Are there disadvantages?

Henderson: Zamzee uses an accelerometer technology, which tracks the intensity of your activity, not just the number of steps you take (which is what a pedometer records). Integral to using Zamzee is also the online experience – which was designed to get kids excited about physical activity and to make being active fun. The website is an integral component to the Zamzee experience, and it uniquely incorporates gamification to make exercise fun in a way more stereotypical pedometers or activity monitors do not. For example, on the Zamzee website kids can take challenges and earn prizes – this is very different from, say, counting calories or working towards a weight loss goal. It is more fun. Of course, the disadvantage here is that if counting calories is your primary interest, Zamzee is not the solution for you as we do not track or quantify that information.

Medgadget: What trends in medical technology most excite you? What do you see as the future of Zamzee?

Henderson: The development of ubiquitous and lower cost mobile technologies, like Zamzee and smartphones, are changing the way that healthcare and consumers interact. It enables us to deliver on our goal to “lead with fun and health will follow.” Since Zamzee’s goal is to reverse the epidemic of sedentary behavior among kids in the U.S., taking advantage of mobile technologies as they develop will certainly be key to our future.

This author was also sent a review copy of the Zamzee, and was impressed at how light, inexpensive ($29.95), inconspicuous (that is, unless you add a skin to it for personalization), and easy it is to use. Any kid who regularly uses his or her computer will be able to use the Zamzee, though the key question is which kids will be most likely to use it. Given that at this stage activity monitors for adults seem to primarily be used by people who were already fit to begin with, we hope that Zamzee pulls in all types of children and facilitates a large scale behavior shift away from sedentary lifestyles. For more information about the Zamzee and how it works, check out the video below.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NRKv48FZQ0Q&feature=player_embedded

Source : http://www.prweb.com/releases/2012/9/prweb9932554.htm

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New Website Set to Tackle Childhood Obesity

New Website Set to Tackle Childhood Obesity

New Website Set to Tackle Childhood Obesity

The World Cancer Research Fund hopes that by using the health conscious characters on its new website it can encourage better eating and a more active lifestyle among its target audience of four to seven-year-olds.

Competitions, puzzles and stories aim to encourage children to learn more about food.

The site, launched this month, introduces children to a new world of fruit and vegetables they may not have tried before and encourages them to cook with them and even to grow them.

Warnings

Funded by the Department of Health, The Great Grub Club website is a response to warnings from health professionals about the worsening situation with childhood obesity.

Sarah Kovandzich, WCRF children’s education manager, said getting the healthy message across early was vital in the fight against disease and obesity.

Annabel, Geoff and Jay Simmons

The Simmons family love the new website

“If we can get the message across at this early age then it will help as part of prevention.”

Statistics show that children only eat two of their recommended five portions of fruit and vegetables a day, while 92% of children eat too much saturated fat.

A spokesman for the World Cancer Research fund warned that eating poorly now could cause health problems in later life.

“Many cancers take years to develop – so it’s important that children, and those who care for them, and young adults hear our message.

“Poor lifestyle habits are established in childhood, and these may contribute to our children’s risk of cancer later in life.”

Poor diet and lack of activity indirectly contribute to cancer risk through overweight and obesity, he explained.

“But we also know that a diet rich in plant-based foods, fruit and vegetables, can reduce cancer risk, as can being more physically active.”

Dr Greg Martin, of WCRF agreed: “It is very difficult as an adult to change lifestyle, but if you start healthily it is far easier to continue in this way.”

Fun

Geoff Simmons, a graphic designer from London, who has been helping with the Great Grub Club website, said it had proved a big hit with his children Annabel, aged six, and three-year-old Jay.

“We have been growing our own cucumbers, carrots and berries in the garden.

“We have also been making juices and smoothies.”

Daughter Annabel added: “I have enjoyed it.

“We have been making our own fruit lollies,” she enthused.

A new website from the World Cancer Research Fund aims to bring obesity fighting cartoon characters to the hungry eyes of kids:

The World Cancer Research Fund hopes that by using the health conscious characters on its new website it can encourage better eating and a more active lifestyle among its target audience of four to seven-year-olds.

Competitions, puzzles and stories aim to encourage children to learn more about food.

The site, launched this month, introduces children to a new world of fruit and vegetables they may not have tried before and encourages them to cook with them and even to grow them.

Source : http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/6571571.stm

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Using Colonoscopy to Predict Parkinson’s Disease?

Using Colonoscopy to Predict Parkinson’s Disease?

Using Colonoscopy to Predict Parkinson’s Disease?

(CHICAGO) – Two studies by neurological researchers at Rush University Medical Center suggest that, in the future, colonic tissue obtained during either colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy may be used to predict who will develop Parkinson’s disease, a neurodegenerative disorder of aging that that leads to progressive deterioration of motor function due to loss of neurons in the brain that produce dopamine, a neurotransmitter essential to executing movement.

Currently, Parkinson’s disease afflicts almost 5 million people worldwide. It is projected that by 2030, Parkinson’s disease will affect over 10 million individuals.

A protein called alpha-synuclein is deposited in cells of the brain of patients with Parkinson’s disease and is considered a pathologic hallmark of the disorder. These protein aggregates form Lewy bodies, a characteristic structure seen in Parkinson’s disease brains at autopsy. Identification of the role of alpha-synuclein aggregation in neuronal dysfunction and death has broadened understanding of how Parkinson’s disease develops and introduced a valuable tool for tracking its progress.

Physicians at Rush have demonstrated that the alpha-synuclein protein can also be seen in the nerve cells in the wall of the intestines in research subjects with early Parkinson’s disease, but not in healthy subjects. In this study, 10 subjects with early Parkinson’s disease had flexible sigmoidoscopy, a technique like colonoscopy, in which a flexible scope is inserted into the lower intestine. In the flexible sigmoidoscopy technique, the scope is only inserted about 8 inches and no colon preparation or anesthesia are required. The procedure takes only 5-10 minutes.

Now, a group of Rush scientists has become the first to demonstrate alpha-synuclein aggregation in biological tissue obtained before onset of motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

The studies, published the May 15 issue of the journal Movement Disorders, were conducted by Dr. Kathleen M. Shannon, neurologist in the Movement Disorders and Parkinson’s Center at Rush, and a multidisciplinary team of scientists at Rush. The team analyzed samples of tissue obtained during colonscopy examinations that took place 2-5 years before the first symptom of Parkinson’s disease appeared in 3 research subjects, and all 3 showed the characteristic protein in the wall of the lower intestine.

“Recent clinical and pathological evidence supports the notion that Parkinson’s disease may begin in the intestinal wall then spread through the nerves to the brain. Clinical signs of intestinal disease, such as constipation, Parkinson’s disease diagnosis by more than a decade. These studies suggest it may one day be possible to use colonic tissue biopsy to predict who will develop motor Parkinson’s disease,” said Shannon.

“Such tissue could be obtained at the time of screening colonoscopy, a procedure routinely applied for colon cancer surveillance beginning at age 50, and repeated every three to 10 years in adults of middle age,” said Shannon.

Alternatively, the Rush investigators showed that colonic tissue is easily obtained using flexible sigmoidoscopy, a technique that, unlike colonoscopy, requires no colon cleansing preparation or sedation, and can be performed in 10 minutes.

Currently, diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease depends on the appearance of such cardinal features as tremor, slowed movement, rigidity and gait problems. The clinical diagnosis can be difficult early in the disease, and as many as 10 percent to 20 percent of patients may be misdiagnosed. Studies have shown that by the time primary symptoms appear, many patients with Parkinson’s disease will have lost 60 percent to 80 percent or more of dopamine-producing cells in the brain.

“In view of a multi-billion-dollar translational research effort that aims to identify agents that slow or stop the progression of Parkinson’s disease, the need for accurate and timely diagnostic biomarkers, including the potential for pre-motor diagnosis, is particularly acute,” the authors stated.

“We believe that alpha-synuclein in the colonic submucosa may be a pre-motor biomarker that easily can be studied in cohorts at increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease (relatives of Parkinson’s disease subjects, subjects with anosmia [inability to smell], rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and others).”

The Rush scientists stressed the need to replicate this finding in other populations, including normal controls as well as in subjects with other neurodegenerative Parkinson’s-like disorders, and to determine the safest and highest-yield biomarker site.

Roughly 60,000 people in the United States are diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease each year, according to the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation. In all, more than 1.5 million people in the United States suffer from the condition. Yet thousands of cases go undetected and diagnosing the disease in the early stages remains challenging.

Early diagnosis of Parkinson’s enables the disease to be treated with drugs such as dopamine agonists and monoamine oxidase type-B inhibitors, which can alleviate the condition’s symptoms and postpone the need to begin levodopa therapy. Nevertheless, early diagnosis of Parkinson’s has remained challenging and misdiagnoses are common.

Two recent studies performed at Rush University Medical Center (Chicago) point to an alternate way of diagnosing the disease: colonic tissue obtained during colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy might be used to predict who will develop the disease.

From the abstract published in the Movement Disorders journal:

Despite clinicopathological evidence that Parkinson’s disease (PD) may begin in peripheral tissues, identification of premotor Parkinson’s disease is not yet possible. Alpha-synuclein aggregation underlies Parkinson’s disease pathology, and its presence in peripheral tissues may be a reliable disease biomarker. Objective: We sought evidence of alpha-synuclein pathology in colonic tissues before the development of characteristic Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms. Methods: Old colon biopsy samples were available for three subjects with PD. Biopsies were obtained 2-5 years before PD onset. We performed immunohistochemistry studies for the presence of alpha-synuclein and Substance P in these samples. Results: All subjects showed immunostaining for alpha-synuclein (two, five and two years before first motor Parkinson’s disease symptom). No similar alpha-synuclein immunostaining was seen in 23 healthy controls. Staining of samples for substance P suggested colocalization of alpha-synuclein and substance P in perikarya and neurites. Conclusions: This is the first demonstration of alpha-synuclein in colon tissue prior to onset of PD. Additional study is required to determine whether colonic mucosal biopsy may be a biomarker of premotor PD

The scientists examined the tissue samples of people who later developed Parkinson’s disease. The samples were taken several years before the patients showed symptoms of the neurological disorder.

Kathleen M. Shannon, neurologist in the Movement Disorders and Parkinson’s Center at Rush, who was involved in the study, offered the following thought-provoking quote in a statement (emphasis added):

“Recent clinical and pathological evidence supports the notion that Parkinson’s disease may begin in the intestinal wall then spread through the nerves to the brain. Clinical signs of intestinal disease, such as constipation, [may precede] Parkinson’s disease diagnosis by more than a decade. These studies suggest it may one day be possible to use colonic tissue biopsy to predict who will develop motor Parkinson’s disease.”

While the research might ultimately lead to the use of colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy to diagnose Parkinson’s, the researchers stress the need for more studies to replicate the findings in larger patient populations with Parkinson’s and Parkinson’s-like disorders.

Source : http://www.sciencecodex.com/colonoscopy_or_flexible_sigmoidoscopy_may_be_used_to_predict_parkinsons-91559

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Interview with Blausen Medical Founder, Bruce Blausen

Interview with Blausen Medical Founder, Bruce Blausen

Interview with Blausen Medical Founder, Bruce Blausen

Blausen Medical Communications is a leading medical & scientific animation and illustration company that, for the past 21 years, has been designing and creating the world’s “largest library of 3D medical animations.” BMC provided us a review copy of their latest app, Blausen Anatomy & Physiology Supplement ($29.99 on the iTunes Store), which we were able to browse through on our iPads.

We were impressed with not only the quality and detail of the graphics, but also with the alacrity with which BMC’s employees responded to feedback and questions. Perhaps this is why Blausen’s apps, including the Human Atlas, have been downloaded over 240,000 times.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iq5202iB0-0&feature=player_embedded

The A&P Supplement app contains over 1,000 3D illustrations and animations (apparently each costing $10,000 to create, making the total app’s development worth about $10 million) separated into 29 chapters, such as The Special Senses and Neural Tissue. Though there is no extensive text (hence Supplement), there is an 1,850 term glossary, accompanying voice-overs explaining many of the animations, and mini-quizzes. When asked about certain features, such as search functionality and note-sharing, the BMC team said those features were currently in the planning or development stage. For the visual learner the app with its existing features would be worth the price.

BlausenBruce Interview with Blausen Medical Founder, Bruce BlausenIn addition to the review, we also had the opportunity to speak with BMC’s founder, Bruce Blausen, about the company’s roots and where they plan to go.

Shiv Gaglani, Medgadget: You founded Blausen Medical Communications in 1991. How has the vision changed, if at all, over the last 20 years with the introduction of smartphones and tablets?

Bruce Blausen: When we started we were a pure service-based company. We have been moving towards being an independent publisher/author of our own products. Before smartphones and tablets we really could not sell directly to clinicians and students, but the app store has changed that. To date we have had over a quarter of a million downloads.

Medgadget: What most excites you concerning trends in medical technology and healthcare?

Blausen: In the past there was really only one source of medical information in little watercolor pamphlets. Now we are on hospital websites and have partnered with most of the video-on-demand companies so our content is on the bedside TVs. We are partnering with companies that want to place our content on TV channels within the hospital and of course now we are right in the palm of your hand with our smartphone- and tablet apps. Next we’ll be on the portable robotic units that are increasingly gaining traction in the healthcare environment. What is great is that so many companies are creating incredible medical breakthroughs, such as intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) or TheraSphere technologies, and these products need animations to help explain. In the future I believe that all EMRs will have rich content associated with most medical terms.

Medgadget: BMC’s tag line was “Alleviating Fears and Concerns of Patients World-Wide” and is now “Redefining Patient and Student Education Worldwide.” Can you elaborate on what that means and how BMC accomplishes that?

Blausen: As my mother was getting older she wanted to understand the angiogram procedure. Well, seeing how nervous she was, I created a video with our stock animations and sent it to her on VHS. She loved it and started sharing it with all of her friends. We have since received countless emails thanking us for creating this or that particular animation. When people are diagnosed with, for example, cancer, they really cannot process the information being given to them. They are freaked out. Our animations help educate them and address their concerns about treatments or procedures. In addition, the Human Atlas has been doing the same for people in 40 countries in 16 languages.

Medgadget: What is BMC’s next product focus?

Blausen: Great question. Our drug atlas is about 50 percent complete. The chemistry and biology atlases will begin when we have a publishing partner. And there is talk about finally doing a veterinary atlas. EMR is in the works, as is “Blausen It” – an icon that will be in a browser window that when clicked scans documents for our key words and highlights them so when they are clicked it will provide the user a selection of rich media from our library…in over 15 languages.

Medgadget: Can you describe your personal path to becoming a leader in medical animation? What specifically drives you?

Blausen: I have always been a perfectionist and a competitor. However, we do not really compete against other companies because we just go about doing our own thing and hope that it works out. I am creating multimillion-dollar asset products that sell for 30 dollars…in a market that did not exist 3-4 years ago. I like being on the cutting edge of technology because there is no one to follow. If you look at most medical apps, they are really not that difficult to copy or create alternative versions. That is not the case with Blausen’s Human Atlas or the A&P Apps. These products have so many incredible and elaborate animations that the time and effort required for someone else to copy our content does not make sense because the market is still developing. We like to be first but also to have the best product. On a personal level, I just believe that making animations is what God had planned for me to do. I feel we really make a difference in education people about our bodies.

Source : http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/blausen-human-atlas-hd/id374973376?mt=8

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Endologix Nellix Endovascular Graft for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

Endologix Nellix Endovascular Graft for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

Endologix Nellix Endovascular Graft for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

IRVINE, Calif., Sept. 6, 2012 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Endologix, Inc. (Nasdaq:ELGX), developer and marketer of innovative treatments for aortic disorders, announced today achievement of the CE (Conformite Europeenne) Mark of the current version of the Nellix® EndoVascular Aneurysm Sealing System for the treatment of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (“AAA”). Nellix is an innovative new endovascular aneurysm sealing (“EVAS”) system designed to simplify endovascular procedures, treat a broader range of patients, and provide enhanced clinical outcomes. The Nellix System is not approved in the United States for either investigational use or commercial sale.

Endologix is currently implementing a few enhancements to the Nellix System intended to further optimize the device for commercialization. When complete, the Company will submit these enhancements to its Notified Body, with expectations of gaining CE Mark approval for the commercial version of the device and beginning a limited market introduction of the enhanced system in Europe by the end of the second quarter 2013.

John McDermott, President and Chief Executive Officer, said, “Nellix has the potential to treat more AAA patients and get better clinical outcomes than any other device for the endovascular repair of AAA. Receiving CE Mark for the current version of the system is an important regulatory milestone and we look forward to providing this ground-breaking technology to physicians and their patients in 2013.”

About Endologix, Inc.

Endologix, Inc. (the “Company”) develops and manufactures minimally invasive treatments for aortic disorders. The Company’s focus is endovascular stent grafts for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). AAA is a weakening of the wall of the aorta, the largest artery in the body, resulting in a balloon-like enlargement. Once AAA develops, it continues to enlarge and, if left untreated, becomes increasingly susceptible to rupture. The overall patient mortality rate for ruptured AAA is approximately 75%, making it a leading cause of death in the U.S. Additional information can be found on Endologix’s Web site at www.endologix.com.

Forward-Looking Statements

Except for historical information contained herein, this news release contains forward-looking statements relating to enhancements to, further CE Mark receipt, and the commercial launch and clinical acceptance to the Nellix System, the accuracy of which are necessarily subject to risks and uncertainties, all of which are difficult or impossible to predict accurately and many of which are beyond the control of Endologix. Many factors may cause actual results to differ materially from anticipated results, including delays in, product research and development efforts, regulatory submissions and approvals and other economic, business, competitive and regulatory factors. The Company undertakes no obligation to update its forward looking statements. Please refer to the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2011, and the Company’s other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, for more detailed information regarding these risks and other factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied.

IRVINE, Calif., Sept. 6, 2012 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Endologix, Inc. (Nasdaq:ELGX), developer and marketer of innovative treatments for aortic disorders, announced today achievement of the CE (Conformite Europeenne) Mark of the current version of the Nellix® EndoVascular Aneurysm Sealing System for the treatment of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (“AAA”). Nellix is an innovative new endovascular aneurysm sealing (“EVAS”) system designed to simplify endovascular procedures, treat a broader range of patients, and provide enhanced clinical outcomes. The Nellix System is not approved in the United States for either investigational use or commercial sale.

Endologix is currently implementing a few enhancements to the Nellix System intended to further optimize the device for commercialization. When complete, the Company will submit these enhancements to its Notified Body, with expectations of gaining CE Mark approval for the commercial version of the device and beginning a limited market introduction of the enhanced system in Europe by the end of the second quarter 2013.

John McDermott, President and Chief Executive Officer, said, “Nellix has the potential to treat more AAA patients and get better clinical outcomes than any other device for the endovascular repair of AAA. Receiving CE Mark for the current version of the system is an important regulatory milestone and we look forward to providing this ground-breaking technology to physicians and their patients in 2013.”

About Endologix, Inc.

Endologix, Inc. (the “Company”) develops and manufactures minimally invasive treatments for aortic disorders. The Company’s focus is endovascular stent grafts for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). AAA is a weakening of the wall of the aorta, the largest artery in the body, resulting in a balloon-like enlargement. Once AAA develops, it continues to enlarge and, if left untreated, becomes increasingly susceptible to rupture. The overall patient mortality rate for ruptured AAA is approximately 75%, making it a leading cause of death in the U.S. Additional information can be found on Endologix’s Web site at www.endologix.com.

Forward-Looking Statements

Except for historical information contained herein, this news release contains forward-looking statements relating to enhancements to, further CE Mark receipt, and the commercial launch and clinical acceptance to the Nellix System, the accuracy of which are necessarily subject to risks and uncertainties, all of which are difficult or impossible to predict accurately and many of which are beyond the control of Endologix. Many factors may cause actual results to differ materially from anticipated results, including delays in, product research and development efforts, regulatory submissions and approvals and other economic, business, competitive and regulatory factors. The Company undertakes no obligation to update its forward looking statements. Please refer to the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2011, and the Company’s other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, for more detailed information regarding these risks and other factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied.

Endologix (Irvine, CA) has announced that European regulators gave the go-ahead to launch the Nellix EndoVascular Aneurysm Sealing System on the continent. It is designed to virtually seal the aortic aneurysm sac to relieve any pressure on the fragile artery as blood bypasses through the device.

Though the company is glad of the current approval, it plans on submitting application for a slightly improved version of the Nellix with the hope of making it available to physicians in Europe in the 2nd quarter of next year.

Here are the requirements that were used to select patients for clinical trials of the Nellix:

Non-aneurysmal aortic neck length of ? 5mm

Non-aneurysmal aortic neck diameter of 16 to 36mm

Maximum aortic blood flow lumen diameter of ? 60mm

Common iliac artery diameter of 8 to 35mm

Some details on the clinical trials performed using the Nellix from the product page:

In initial clinical trial experience involving 34 patients outside of the United States (Krievins DK, et al., EVAR using the Nellix Sac-anchoring Endoprosthesis: Treatment of Favourable and Adverse Anatomy, EUR J Vasc Endovasc Surg (2011), doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2011.03.007), 100% implant success was observed. To two year follow-up, no aneurysm rupture, conversion to open surgery or stent graft migration has been observed. One secondary procedure for distal Type I endoleak has been performed (2.9% of patients). Physician feedback has been positive, particularly as it relates to ease of use and versatility to treat both standard and more challenging aneurysm anatomies.

Source : http://investor.endologix.com/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=704983

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More patients gain weight after joint replacement surgery

More patients gain weight after joint replacement surgery

Review of studies finds no conclusive evidence for any effect on body weight of joint replacement surgery

Hip and knee replacements are now a common surgical procedure with more than 700,000 total joint arthroplasties (TJAs) performed in the US every year. Due to the reduction in pain and increases in mobility experienced after having a TJA, it could be expected that weight loss may occur as a by-product of the surgery. But is this the case? This is the question posed by Maria Inacio, a doctoral candidate from the San Diego State University/University of California, San Diego, who is employed at Kaiser Permanente, and her colleagues at those institutions. They conducted a review of the current literature to find out. Their results appear online in the journal Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®, published by Springer.

Obesity itself is one of the major risk factors leading to the need for a hip or knee replacement. Activity can be severely restricted by joint pain in these individuals and one might presume weight loss would occur postoperatively as mobility improves with increased activity levels. Such weight loss could reduce the risk of complications such as prosthetic loosening, thus reducing the chances of requiring further surgery.

The authors conducted a review of twelve studies meeting their criteria. They considered the studies thus far in this area to be of generally low quality with small sample sizes and poor methods, leading to a risk of bias. Overall the studies reported between 14 percent to 49 percent of patients had lost weight a year after having a TJA. However, the ranges of weight loss suggested inconsistent loss and the differences in the study designs meant that overall there was no conclusive pattern. In fact, the studies showed that more patients gained weight than lost.

In a CORR Insights® commentary on the manuscript, Stuart B. Goodman, MD, PhD, of Stanford University said, “Obese patients frequently tell clinicians that they are overweight because their painful hips or knees limit their physical activities and their capability to ‘burn calories.’ Unfortunately, after a comprehensive analysis of the data, the answer to this important question is still unknown.”

Inacio and colleagues believe that since TJAs are such a common surgery, further research in this field is warranted and a large representative national study would be desirable. Weight loss, either to prevent the development of osteoarthritis or to reduce long-term morbidity after a hip or knee replacement is extremely desirable in this population. Current evidence is not sufficiently robust to provide an accurate picture, and clinically effective measures cannot be put into place unless the present situation is understood.

Source : http://www.news-medical.net/news/20120910/More-patients-gain-weight-after-joint-replacement-surgery.aspx

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Bayer’s CONTOUR NEXT LINK Glucometer Now a Medtronic Standard

Bayer’s CONTOUR NEXT LINK Glucometer Now a Medtronic Standard

Bayer’s CONTOUR NEXT LINK Glucometer Now a Medtronic Standard

Medtronic, Inc. (NYSE: MDT) and Bayer HealthCare today announced that Bayer’s CONTOUR? NEXT LINK, a new blood glucose meter, is now available in the U.S. with Medtronic’s compatible integrated diabetes management systems.

Bayer’s new meter provides exceptional accuracy utilizing high-performance CONTOUR? NEXT test strips, helping optimize insulin delivery through wireless communication with the MiniMed? Paradigm™ REAL-Time Revel™ insulin pump and the MiniMed? Paradigm™ REAL-Time insulin pump. People with diabetes can have greater confidence that seamless integration with Medtronic’s Bolus Wizard? makes bolus calculations quick and easy, eliminating inaccuracies due to manual entry errors.

Bayer’s CONTOUR? NEXT LINK utilizes the new, high-accuracy CONTOUR? NEXT test strips that deliver exceptional accuracy for close-to-professional lab results that people with diabetes can count on, especially in the low glucose range (

About Bayer HealthCare

The Bayer Group is a global enterprise with core competencies in the fields of health care, nutrition and high-tech materials. Bayer HealthCare, a subgroup of Bayer AG with annual sales of EUR 17.2 billion (2011), is one of the world’s leading, innovative companies in the healthcare and medical products industry and is based in Leverkusen, Germany. The company combines the global activities of the Animal Health, Consumer Care, Medical Care and Pharmaceuticals divisions. Bayer HealthCare’s aim is to discover, develop, manufacture and market products that will improve human and animal health worldwide. Bayer HealthCare has a global workforce of 55,700 employees (December 31, 2011) and is represented in more than 100 countries. Find more information at www.bayerhealthcare.com.

About the Diabetes Business at Medtronic

The Diabetes business at Medtronic (www.medtronicdiabetes.com) is the world leader in advanced diabetes management solutions, including integrated diabetes management systems, insulin pump therapy, continuous glucose monitoring systems and therapy management software, as well as world-class, 24/7 expert consumer and professional service and support.

About Medtronic

Medtronic, Inc. (www.medtronic.com), headquartered in Minneapolis, is the global leader in medical technology – alleviating pain, restoring health and extending life for millions of people around the world.

Bayer Forward-Looking Statements

This release may contain forward-looking statements based on current assumptions and forecasts made by Bayer Group or subgroup management. Various known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors could lead to material differences between the actual future results, financial situation, development or performance of the company and the estimates given here. These factors include those discussed in Bayer’s public reports which are available on the Bayer website at www.bayer.com. The company assumes no liability whatsoever to update these forward-looking statements or to conform them to future events or developments.

Medtronic Forward-Looking Statements

Any forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties such as those described in Medtronic’s periodic reports on file with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Actual results may differ materially from anticipated results.

Bayer is releasing in the U.S. its new high accuracy CONTOUR NEXT LINK, a wireless blood glucose meter designed to work with insulin pumps. As a matter of fact, the new glucometer will come standard with Medtronic‘s pumps, including the flagship MiniMed Paradigm REAL-Time Revel. The meter is also compatible with Medtronic’s stand-alone Guardian REAL-Time continuous glucose monitor.

Medtronic is planning on shifting all its insulin pump customers to the CONTOUR NEXT LINK, including shipping out the new glucometer to those using older devices.

Enables fast and easy bolus dosing and continuous glucose monitoring calibration

Pass-through feature allows for easy downloading to Medtronic’s convenient online CareLINK software, replacing the CareLINK USB device

Bayer’s No Coding™ technology makes testing easy by automatically setting the correct code each time a test strip is inserted

Easy-to-read display with large, clear numbers

Fast 5-second countdown and small 0.6 ?L blood sample

Optional pre- and post-meal markers with audible reminders

I promised details on the investigational Bayer Contour Next LINK Meter provided with my pump for the trial, so here you have it. A picture says a thousand words, so I’m going to take advantage of that. Forgive me, however, for the not-so-great picture quality. I had to use my phone camera today, as the other camera’s batteries were dead. FYI – If you click on an image, you can see it in a larger format. You also have the option of clicking through all the image up close.

Bayer Contour Meter has a USB connection for charging and downloading readings,

Results are displayed across the screen first in a big bold font, then it shoots to a smaller font as seen as it sends the results to the pump. Tough shot: Green bar says, “Results Sent.”

There is a useful “Notes” screen that includes this and the following image.

Notes also includes “Activity,” which isn’t pictured

The meter also includes a reminder to recheck your blood sugar. I haven’t used this yet, but this is a new feature, so I’m trying it out.

This is the Menu screen.

This is what you see when you select “Trends.”

The is an image of the Logbook. The text under this reading has a scrolling, “Sent, High Blood Sugar.”

Same scrolling text and amber color for a low. Font is white if reading is normal.

Easy on/off button, which seems like a silly thing to show you, but if you have the One Touch UltraLink, you understand. Just try turning the sucker off without throwing it out the window. Such an incredibly simple thing to make so hard.

Pretty cool! I didn’t give it enough credit in my first post, but I also hadn’t played with it much at that point. I don’t upload the meter into Carelink, all results are sent to the pump, so they are uploaded with the pump info. However, if you needed to upload the meter only, you could. Whatcha think?

Source : http://www.tudiabetes.org/forum/topics/bayer-s-new-contour-next-link-blood-glucose-meter-now-available-w

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Harmony Prenatal Test, a New Simpler, Cheaper Screening Tool for Fetal Trisomies

Harmony Prenatal Test, a New Simpler, Cheaper Screening Tool for Fetal Trisomies

Harmony Prenatal Test, a New Simpler, Cheaper Screening Tool for Fetal Trisomies

An advanced blood test to detect common fetal trisomies at 10 weeks gestational age or later

The Harmony Prenatal Test analyzes the relative number of chromosomes in maternal blood to provide an objective, individualized patient result with high sensitivity and specificity. 1-3

atory

Safety

Non-invasive testing poses little risk to pregnant women

Standard blood draw

No risk to the fetus

Accuracy

Highly accurate detection of common fetal trisomies 4

Extremely low false positive rate 4

Individualized results on trisomy risk for each patient

San Jose, Calif., May 7, 2012 – Ariosa Diagnostics, a molecular diagnostics company today

announced that the Harmony™ Prenatal Test will be available in the United States and Canada through

Laboratory Corporation of America® Holdings (LabCorp®) and Integrated Genetics, a member of

LabCorp’s Specialty Testing Group. Harmony represents an innovative non-invasive test for detection

of common fetal trisomies utilizing a directed approach to analyze cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in maternal

blood. The Harmony Prenatal Test is currently available in selected locations and will be broadly

available next month.

“Ariosa Diagnostics is very excited to announce the official launch of the Harmony Prenatal Test and

the agreement with LabCorp, which helps us deliver on the promise of bringing an affordable and

accessible prenatal testing option to pregnant women and their physicians,” said Ken Song, MD, chief

executive officer at Ariosa Diagnostics. “With enhanced test performance and simplicity, the Harmony

Prenatal Test can be reliably incorporated into the management of pregnancies.”

The Harmony Prenatal Test, which detects common fetal trisomies such as Trisomy 21 (associated

with Down syndrome), will be offered through LabCorp and will be available at its 1,000+ patient

service centers. The test is performed using a simple maternal blood draw taken at a doctor’s office or

patient service center, and provides the safety of screening tests with accuracy approaching that of

invasive testing for common fetal trisomies. The test is available to pregnant women of at least 10

weeks gestational age with a single fetus conceived without the use of an egg donor.

“We are pleased to be able to offer this novel, non-invasive prenatal test,” indicated Mark Brecher, MD,

LabCorp’s chief medical officer. “Ariosa Diagnostics’ Harmony Prenatal Test adds another option to

LabCorp’s comprehensive prenatal testing menu.”

“The Harmony Prenatal Test is an affordable, high-quality test that provides a new choice for women,”

said Dr. Song. “Together with LabCorp, we are committed to ensuring that the latest advances in

prenatal testing are accessible to all healthcare providers and women.”

About Ariosa Diagnostics (formerly Aria Diagnostics)

Ariosa Diagnostics, Inc. is a molecular diagnostics company committed to providing safe, highly

accurate and affordable prenatal tests for maternal and fetal health. Led by an experienced team,

Ariosa is using its proprietary technology to perform a directed analysis of cell-free DNA in blood.

Ariosa’s simple blood test equips pregnant women and their healthcare providers with reliable

information to make decisions regarding their health, without creating unnecessary stress or anxiety.

The company began operations in 2010 and is headquartered in San Jose, Calif. For more information,

visit www.ariosadx.com.

*Integrated Genetics is a business unit of Esoterix Genetic Laboratories, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of

Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings.

Ariosa Diagnostics (San Jose, California) is releasing in the U.S. and Canada its Harmony Prenatal Test for detecting fetal trisomies in maternal blood. To be distributed through Laboratory Corporation of America (LabCorp), the test analyzes cell-free DNA (cfDNA), which are free floating DNA fragments, some of which that are in the mother’s blood come from the fetus.

Harmony utilizes directed DNA analysis, which is cheaper and more precise than random sequencing, aka shotgun sequencing, to spot aneuploid chromosomes.

From the announcement:

The Harmony Prenatal Test, which detects common fetal trisomies such as Trisomy 21 (associated with Down syndrome), will be offered through LabCorp and will be available at its 1,000+ patient service centers. The test is performed using a simple maternal blood draw taken at a doctor’s office or patient service center, and provides the safety of screening tests with accuracy approaching that of invasive testing for common fetal trisomies. The test is available to pregnant women of at least 10 weeks gestational age with a single fetus conceived without the use of an egg donor.

Source : http://www.ariosadx.com/benefits-of-harmony-test/

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In Study, Altering Heart Molecules Protect Against Obesity

In Study, Altering Heart Molecules Protect Against Obesity

In Study, Altering Heart Molecules Protect Against Obesity

DALLAS – April 26, 2012 – UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers have demonstrated for the first time that the heart can regulate energy balance throughout the body, a finding that may point to more effective treatments for obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

Drs. Chad Greuter, Eric Olson

Scientists led by Dr. Eric Olson (right) and including Dr. Chad Grueter have shown that the heart can regulate energy balance throughout the body. Their discovery eventually could lead to effective treatments for obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

Obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes affect tens of millions of people in the U.S., according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Using mice fed a high-fat diet, researchers found that manipulating a heart-specific genetic pathway prevents obesity and protects against harmful blood-sugar changes associated with type 2 diabetes. The scientists’ findings appear in the April 27 issue of Cell.

“Obesity, diabetes, and coronary artery disease are major causes of human death and disability, and they are all connected to metabolism. This is the first demonstration that the heart can regulate systemic metabolism, which we think opens up a whole new area of investigation,” said Dr. Eric Olson, chairman of molecular biology at UT Southwestern and senior author of the study. Lead author of the Cell paper is Dr. Chad Grueter, a postdoctoral researcher in molecular biology.

Their study used genetically altered mice and an experimental drug to manipulate levels of two regulatory molecules in the heart. The scientists found that MED13, a crucial part of a gene pathway in the heart, controls whole-body metabolism while miRNA-208a, a heart-specific microRNA, inhibits the action of MED13.

Mice with MED13 levels that were increased either genetically or by a drug were lean and showed an increase in energy expenditure, the researchers said. In contrast, mice genetically engineered to lack MED13 in the heart showed increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity. These mice also had aberrant blood-sugar metabolism and other changes similar to those of a group of conditions called metabolic syndrome, which is linked to the development of coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.

MicroRNAs are small snippets of genetic material once considered of little interest because they do not code for the proteins used in body processes the way larger strands of genetic material do. In recent years, these molecules have emerged as key regulators of disease and stress responses in various tissues. At least 500 microRNAs have been identified.

“Several years ago, our lab focused on this heart-specific microRNA, miR-208a, and then worked with a biotechnology company to develop a drug to inhibit miR-208a. While studying the effects of that drug, we observed that animals treated with the inhibitor seemed to be resistant to high-fat diets but were otherwise healthy,” Dr. Olson said. He is one of five co-founders of the biotechnology company, the Colorado-based miRagen Therapeutics Inc., in which UT Southwestern has an equity stake.

The current study builds on that original observation by identifying the role of miR-208a and its target MED13 in regulating systemic metabolism. How this heart-specific microRNA communicates with cells throughout the body will be the subject of future studies, Dr. Grueter said.

This work was supported, in part, by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the Donald W. Reynolds Center for Clinical Cardiovascular Research, the Robert A. Welch Foundation, the Fondation Leducq-Transatlantic of Excellence in Cardiovascular Research Program, and the American Heart Association-Jon Holden DeHaan Foundation. Dr. Grueter received fellowship support from the American Diabetes Association.

Other investigators involved were Brett A. Johnson, a doctoral candidate of molecular biology; Susan DeLeon, graduate student; Lillian Sutherland, senior research scientist; Xiaoxia Qi, research scientist; Dr. Laurent Gautron, instructor of internal medicine; Dr. Joel Elmquist, professor of internal medicine, psychiatry, and pharmacology; Dr. Rhonda Bassel-Duby, professor of molecular biology; and Dr. Eva van Rooij of miRagen Therapeutics.

microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (approximately 20-25 nucleotides long), single-stranded RNA molecules that regulate gene expression and play a vital role in influencing the pathways responsible for many illnesses, including cardiovascular and muscle disease. These RNAs are transcribed from genes; however, unlike messenger RNA (mRNA) they do not encode proteins.

miRNAs function by preventing the translation of mRNAs into proteins and/or by triggering degradation of these mRNAs. Studies have shown that miRNA gene regulation is often not a decisive on and off switch but a subtle function that fine-tunes cellular phenotypes that becomes more pronounced during stress situations. miRNAs have been found in nearly every biological system examined to date. According to the Sanger Institute, over 850 miRNAs have been found in humans.

miRNAs can be modulated with chemically synthesized oligonucleotides by either decreasing the levels (anti-miRs or inhibitors) or increasing the levels (pro-miRs or mimics) of expressed miRNAs. These modulators can then directly affect the protein expression of the specific miRNA’s targets. Typically, in laboratory settings, miRNA mimics are introduced as double stranded oligonucleotides and inhibitors are introduced as single strand oligonucleotides.

e lean and showed an increase in energy expenditure, the researchers said. In contrast, mice genetically engineered to lack MED13 in the heart showed increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity. These mice also had aberrant blood-sugar metabolism and other changes similar to those of a group of conditions called metabolic syndrome, which is linked to the development of coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.

Source : http://www.utsouthwestern.edu/newsroom/news-releases/year-2012/april/greuter-olson-heart-metabolism.html

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