Posts Tagged ‘cancer’

Page 1 of 1312345...10...Last »

Algorithms improve certainty in ruling out deep and pelvic vein thrombosis at primary level of patient care

Algorithms improve certainty in ruling out deep and pelvic vein thrombosis at primary level of patient care

Algorithms improve certainty in ruling out deep and pelvic vein thrombosis at the primary level of patient care, say Lobna El Tabei and her co-authors in the current issue of the Deutsches Ärzteblatt International.

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can lead to fatal pulmonary embolism or chronic post-thrombotic syndrome. To improve differential diagnostic certainty, scores have been developed that allow the clinical probability of DVT to be calculated on the basis of weighted combinations of individual clinical findings. Items of these scores are, for example, cancer, paresis of the leg, extended periods of bed rest, swelling, and pain.

The primary aim of the study was to determine diagnostic accuracy regarding exclusion of DVT using a treatment algorithm consisting of one of these scores, the Wells score, followed by either a D-dimer test and/or compression sonography—depending on the result of the Wells score—and to compare this with the diagnostic accuracy of the primary care physician’s clinical judgment alone.

The algorithm investigated by the authors allows the primary care physician to rule out DVT with a high degree of probability. In this study, which included 395 patients, only 1% of cases of DVT were missed, compared with 5% when relying on clinical judgment alone.

Source : http://www.news-medical.net/news/20121127/Algorithms-improve-certainty-in-ruling-out-deep-and-pelvic-vein-thrombosis-at-primary-level-of-patient-care.aspx

Full story

BSD-2000 Hyperthermia System purchased by Cancer Treatment Centers of America

BSD-2000 Hyperthermia System purchased by Cancer Treatment Centers of America

BSD Medical Corporation (NASDAQ: BSDM) (Company or BSD) (www.BSDMedical.com), a leading provider of medical systems that utilize targeted heat therapy to treat cancer, announced today that the Cancer Treatment Centers of America® (CTCA) at Western Regional Medical Center (WRMC), located in Goodyear, Arizona, has purchased a BSD-2000 Hyperthermia System (BSD-2000). WRMC serves the Western United States, including the major metropolitan areas of Phoenix, Denver, Los Angeles, Las Vegas, Seattle, Portland and Albuquerque. This will be the eighth BSD Hyperthermia system purchased by CTCA®.

“offering the very best in cancer care.”

WRMC is a state-of-the-art, all-digital cancer hospital that provides advanced cancer treatments, world-class technologies and integrative therapies under one roof. The 213,000-square-foot facility is located on a 25-acre site, which is part of the Phoenix metropolitan area. Like the other CTCA cancer hospitals, WRMC provides the most advanced therapeutic resources in cancer treatment (http://www.cancercenter.com/western-hospital/about-western/history.cfm).

CTCA is a network of hospitals and one of the premier providers of cancer care in the world. CTCA physicians specialize in treating many types of cancer, including complex and advanced stage cases. CTCA is committed to revolutionizing cancer care by providing the most advanced and effective cancer treatments and integrative therapies available in order to treat the cancer and improve the patient’s treatment experience and quality of life. The CTCA hospitals were recently recognized by the Commission on Cancer of the American College of Surgeons as “offering the very best in cancer care.”

Source : http://www.news-medical.net/news/20121126/BSD-2000-Hyperthermia-System-purchased-by-Cancer-Treatment-Centers-of-America.aspx

Full story

UPC teams conduct research in biomedical engineering to improve people’s health

UPC teams conduct research in biomedical engineering to improve people’s health

Systems to improve patient rehabilitation, methods that help detect diseases, and smart biomaterials for optimising treatments—scientific advances in the field of biomedical engineering are unstoppable. A number of leading UPC teams are carrying out research aimed at harnessing technology to improve people’s health.

Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s. Optimising treatment and rehabilitation of the people it affects and improving their quality of life is the goal of Joan Cabestany and Andreu Català, researchers at the Technical Research Centre for Dependency Care and Autonomous Living (CETpD) of the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya · BarcelonaTech (UPC).

The two engineers are heading up a European project known as REMPARK (Personal Health Device for the Remote and Autonomous Management of Parkinson’s Disease), which has a budget of €4.73 million. The objective is to develop a pioneering wearable monitoring system that can be used to identify and quantify, in real time and with high reliability, the motor status of Parkinson’s patients during their everyday lives. The system will act automatically—though always under medical supervision—in response to the situations that are most incapacitating for patients, intervening in the least invasive and most effective way possible. Other participants in this ambitious project coordinated by the UPC include the Teknon Medical Centre, Telefónica R&D, the European Parkinson’s Disease Association, and a number of research centres and companies based in Germany, Portugal, Italy, Israel, Ireland, Sweden and Belgium.

The system being developed consists of two elements: a bracelet equipped with a sensor for measuring tremor in patients and a smart device the size of a mobile phone, which is worn at the waist on a belt made of biocompatible material. The device is equipped with a set of sensors and has the capacity to process and wirelessly transmit all the information collected and processed.

When a gait-freezing episode occurs, the REMPARK system will act to synchronise the patient’s movements. This will be achieved by means of auditory, visual or haptic (touch-related) cueing devices, a pump for regulated subcutaneous drug delivery, and a functional electrical stimulation (FES) system. “The device will make it possible to quantify the effects of a drug in a particular patient and adjust the dose accordingly,” says Joan Cabestany, stressing that REMPARK is “a personalised system that adapts to each person’s needs.”

For the first time in Europe, REMPARK will be tested on a hundred patients in their homes. “We want to use the technology to give Parkinson’s patients back their confidence, which is gradually eroded by the disease,” says Andreu Català. The project “will reduce the number of hospitalisations and improve patient treatment and rehabilitation,” adds the researcher, who works at the Vilanova i la Geltrú Campus.

Stress-free cells

The REMPARK project is set to run until 2015, but others are yielding results that are about to hit the market. This was clear at the BIO International Convention, the world’s largest biotechnology exhibition, which was held in Boston (Massachusetts, United States) last June.

The UPC presented a number of patents at the event, including an automatic method for introducing substances such as drugs and DNA into cells (transfection). The method, known as in vitro electroporation, is more efficient and economical than existing approaches.

The technique, which is applied manually, is commonly used in gene therapy, cell-based therapies, and tumour treatment by electrochemotherapy. Cells are detached from the bottom of the plates where they are grown and put into suspension, i.e. into a mixture. They are then placed in a special cuvette with aluminium electrodes on its sides. The cuvette is loaded into a device (an electroporator) that creates a high-intensity electric field across the cells, causing the pores in the cell membrane to open. Substances can then be introduced through these pores.

The new system simplifies and automates this process. A microelectrode assembly is introduced directly into the culture plate and placed at a distance of 10 ìm (10 millionths of a metre) from the cells. A 20 V electric field is then applied (in the conventional process a 500 V field is used). The lower voltage reduces the cost of the devices used to carry out these biotechnological processes and subjects the cells to less stress. The low cost of the microelectrodes also makes it possible to produce single-use electroporators. This patent was developed by researcher Ramon Bragós and doctoral student Tomàs Garcia, who are attached to the Biomedical Engineering Research Centre (CREB), in collaboration with a team at the University of Barcelona (UB).

The UPC is also contributing to major advances in the development of medical devices and diagnostic imaging. The UPC’s Institute of Industrial and Control Engineering (IOC) and the Pulmonology Research Group of Bellvitge Hospital’s Institute for Biomedical Research have developed a virtual bronchoscopy system that improves the diagnosis of lung cancer. The technology provides doctors with information that enables them to decide with more confidence whether an actual bronchoscopy is necessary or not. This helps minimise risk and discomfort for patients.

The system is based on images provided by a virtual bronchoscopy using 2D computed tomography images. The novel feature of the system is that it takes into account the geometry and kinematic constraints of the bronchoscope.

The device is designed so that a pulmonologist can virtually navigate through a patient’s airways and simulate the movements that will later be executed when a flexible bronchoscope is used to perform the examination. It is a useful tool that facilitates “very realistic planning of the most feasible path from the trachea to peripheral pulmonary lesions,” says Jan Rosell, the researcher who carried out the project together with Paolo Cabras and Alexander Pérez, who also work with the IOC. “Doctors can also use the device to determine whether the end of the bronchoscope will reach a lesion, or, if not, how close it can be manoeuvred and what technique will need to be used to obtain a biopsy sample,” Rosell adds.

In addition to pursuing advances in diagnostic imaging, molecular biology and telemedicine, UPC researchers are also doing innovative work in another area of interest: metabolomics, the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites. It is in this field that another CREB team has patented an innovative software tool. The advanced program, based on a new algorithm, helps medical professionals make more accurate, automated predictions in disease diagnosis and drug screening.

Developed by Àlex Perera and Francesc Fernández in collaboration with researchers with the University of Barcelona’s Department of Nutrition and Food Science, the tool improves detection of biomarkers, the biological markers used to detect diseases.

Another advantage of the software is that it reduces prediction error in metabolomic analysis and testing (used to examine the small organic molecules in biological systems). Metabolomic analyses are based on biological samples of urine or blood, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, and mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Making predictions in this area is complex because it requires analysis of extensive data obtained from individual samples, but it is of vital importance in evaluating the effectiveness of new drugs, for example.

New test for tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is one of the diseases that accounts for the most morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite this, there are still a lot of unanswered questions about the disease and many scientific challenges remain to be tackled. Daniel López Codina and Clara Prats of the UPC’s Discrete Modelling and Simulation of Biological Systems group have carried out research in this field in collaboration with a team at the Experimental Tuberculosis Unit of the Germans Trias i Pujol Health Sciences Research Institute Foundation.

The two teams have patented a new method that offers a fast, easy and reliable way to determine the virulence (ability to produce disease) of Koch’s bacillus. The technique allows specialists to make more accurate diagnoses.

López Codina’s team observed the tuberculosis bacillus (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in an in vitro culture and looked at the way it grows by forming clumps. Given the difficulty of applying conventional microbiological methods with this type of culture, the researchers used an alternative approach: microscopy and analysis with image processing techniques. “This is the first time we’ve been able to use a culture to observe two different strains of the bacterial parasite and the existence of a correlation between the characteristic clumping pattern and the virulence of the disease,” said the researcher.

The results have created a new business opportunity for companies involved in biomedical imaging and diagnostic testing.

Projects like these highlight the huge potential of engineering and medicine to continue delivering solutions that improve people’s quality of life.

Source : http://www.news-medical.net/news/20121123/UPC-teams-conduct-research-in-biomedical-engineering-to-improve-peoples-health.aspx

Full story

UPC teams conduct research in biomedical engineering to improve people’s health

UPC teams conduct research in biomedical engineering to improve people’s health

Systems to improve patient rehabilitation, methods that help detect diseases, and smart biomaterials for optimising treatments—scientific advances in the field of biomedical engineering are unstoppable. A number of leading UPC teams are carrying out research aimed at harnessing technology to improve people’s health.

Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s. Optimising treatment and rehabilitation of the people it affects and improving their quality of life is the goal of Joan Cabestany and Andreu Català, researchers at the Technical Research Centre for Dependency Care and Autonomous Living (CETpD) of the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya · BarcelonaTech (UPC).

The two engineers are heading up a European project known as REMPARK (Personal Health Device for the Remote and Autonomous Management of Parkinson’s Disease), which has a budget of €4.73 million. The objective is to develop a pioneering wearable monitoring system that can be used to identify and quantify, in real time and with high reliability, the motor status of Parkinson’s patients during their everyday lives. The system will act automatically—though always under medical supervision—in response to the situations that are most incapacitating for patients, intervening in the least invasive and most effective way possible. Other participants in this ambitious project coordinated by the UPC include the Teknon Medical Centre, Telefónica R&D, the European Parkinson’s Disease Association, and a number of research centres and companies based in Germany, Portugal, Italy, Israel, Ireland, Sweden and Belgium.

The system being developed consists of two elements: a bracelet equipped with a sensor for measuring tremor in patients and a smart device the size of a mobile phone, which is worn at the waist on a belt made of biocompatible material. The device is equipped with a set of sensors and has the capacity to process and wirelessly transmit all the information collected and processed.

When a gait-freezing episode occurs, the REMPARK system will act to synchronise the patient’s movements. This will be achieved by means of auditory, visual or haptic (touch-related) cueing devices, a pump for regulated subcutaneous drug delivery, and a functional electrical stimulation (FES) system. “The device will make it possible to quantify the effects of a drug in a particular patient and adjust the dose accordingly,” says Joan Cabestany, stressing that REMPARK is “a personalised system that adapts to each person’s needs.”

For the first time in Europe, REMPARK will be tested on a hundred patients in their homes. “We want to use the technology to give Parkinson’s patients back their confidence, which is gradually eroded by the disease,” says Andreu Català. The project “will reduce the number of hospitalisations and improve patient treatment and rehabilitation,” adds the researcher, who works at the Vilanova i la Geltrú Campus.

Stress-free cells

The REMPARK project is set to run until 2015, but others are yielding results that are about to hit the market. This was clear at the BIO International Convention, the world’s largest biotechnology exhibition, which was held in Boston (Massachusetts, United States) last June.

The UPC presented a number of patents at the event, including an automatic method for introducing substances such as drugs and DNA into cells (transfection). The method, known as in vitro electroporation, is more efficient and economical than existing approaches.

The technique, which is applied manually, is commonly used in gene therapy, cell-based therapies, and tumour treatment by electrochemotherapy. Cells are detached from the bottom of the plates where they are grown and put into suspension, i.e. into a mixture. They are then placed in a special cuvette with aluminium electrodes on its sides. The cuvette is loaded into a device (an electroporator) that creates a high-intensity electric field across the cells, causing the pores in the cell membrane to open. Substances can then be introduced through these pores.

The new system simplifies and automates this process. A microelectrode assembly is introduced directly into the culture plate and placed at a distance of 10 ìm (10 millionths of a metre) from the cells. A 20 V electric field is then applied (in the conventional process a 500 V field is used). The lower voltage reduces the cost of the devices used to carry out these biotechnological processes and subjects the cells to less stress. The low cost of the microelectrodes also makes it possible to produce single-use electroporators. This patent was developed by researcher Ramon Bragós and doctoral student Tomàs Garcia, who are attached to the Biomedical Engineering Research Centre (CREB), in collaboration with a team at the University of Barcelona (UB).

The UPC is also contributing to major advances in the development of medical devices and diagnostic imaging. The UPC’s Institute of Industrial and Control Engineering (IOC) and the Pulmonology Research Group of Bellvitge Hospital’s Institute for Biomedical Research have developed a virtual bronchoscopy system that improves the diagnosis of lung cancer. The technology provides doctors with information that enables them to decide with more confidence whether an actual bronchoscopy is necessary or not. This helps minimise risk and discomfort for patients.

The system is based on images provided by a virtual bronchoscopy using 2D computed tomography images. The novel feature of the system is that it takes into account the geometry and kinematic constraints of the bronchoscope.

The device is designed so that a pulmonologist can virtually navigate through a patient’s airways and simulate the movements that will later be executed when a flexible bronchoscope is used to perform the examination. It is a useful tool that facilitates “very realistic planning of the most feasible path from the trachea to peripheral pulmonary lesions,” says Jan Rosell, the researcher who carried out the project together with Paolo Cabras and Alexander Pérez, who also work with the IOC. “Doctors can also use the device to determine whether the end of the bronchoscope will reach a lesion, or, if not, how close it can be manoeuvred and what technique will need to be used to obtain a biopsy sample,” Rosell adds.

In addition to pursuing advances in diagnostic imaging, molecular biology and telemedicine, UPC researchers are also doing innovative work in another area of interest: metabolomics, the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites. It is in this field that another CREB team has patented an innovative software tool. The advanced program, based on a new algorithm, helps medical professionals make more accurate, automated predictions in disease diagnosis and drug screening.

Developed by Àlex Perera and Francesc Fernández in collaboration with researchers with the University of Barcelona’s Department of Nutrition and Food Science, the tool improves detection of biomarkers, the biological markers used to detect diseases.

Another advantage of the software is that it reduces prediction error in metabolomic analysis and testing (used to examine the small organic molecules in biological systems). Metabolomic analyses are based on biological samples of urine or blood, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, and mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Making predictions in this area is complex because it requires analysis of extensive data obtained from individual samples, but it is of vital importance in evaluating the effectiveness of new drugs, for example.

New test for tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is one of the diseases that accounts for the most morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite this, there are still a lot of unanswered questions about the disease and many scientific challenges remain to be tackled. Daniel López Codina and Clara Prats of the UPC’s Discrete Modelling and Simulation of Biological Systems group have carried out research in this field in collaboration with a team at the Experimental Tuberculosis Unit of the Germans Trias i Pujol Health Sciences Research Institute Foundation.

The two teams have patented a new method that offers a fast, easy and reliable way to determine the virulence (ability to produce disease) of Koch’s bacillus. The technique allows specialists to make more accurate diagnoses.

López Codina’s team observed the tuberculosis bacillus (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in an in vitro culture and looked at the way it grows by forming clumps. Given the difficulty of applying conventional microbiological methods with this type of culture, the researchers used an alternative approach: microscopy and analysis with image processing techniques. “This is the first time we’ve been able to use a culture to observe two different strains of the bacterial parasite and the existence of a correlation between the characteristic clumping pattern and the virulence of the disease,” said the researcher.

The results have created a new business opportunity for companies involved in biomedical imaging and diagnostic testing.

Projects like these highlight the huge potential of engineering and medicine to continue delivering solutions that improve people’s quality of life.

Source : http://www.news-medical.net/news/20121123/UPC-teams-conduct-research-in-biomedical-engineering-to-improve-peoples-health.aspx

Full story

New approach could help orthopaedic surgeons better deal with battlefield injuries

New approach could help orthopaedic surgeons better deal with battlefield injuries

Bones are resilient and heal well after most fractures. But in cases of traumatic injury, in which big pieces of bone are missing, healing is much more difficult, if not impossible. These so-called “large segmental defects” are a major clinical problem, and orthopaedic surgeons struggle to treat them, especially among the military in places like Afghanistan.

Now research led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) offers surgeons a new approach. Described on-line in today’s issue of the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, the results confirm that the bone healing process of large segmental defects is exquisitely sensitive to its mechanical environment and suggests that “reverse dynamization,” a straightforward and inexpensive process, could help speed healing of these traumatic injuries.

“Bones are greatly influenced by their mechanical environment, which is why casts, rods, plates and screws are typically used to heal fractures – with a great deal of success,” explains senior author Christopher Evans PhD, Director of the Center for Advanced Orthopaedic Studies at BIDMC. “But until now, no one has examined the relevance of the mechanical environment to the healing of large segmental bone defects.”

According to the American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS), these injuries are one of the most demanding surgical challenges faced by orthopaedic trauma surgeons. Often as large as 20 centimeters in length, large segmental defects can be complicated by regional soft-tissue loss, reduced vascularity, regional scarring and infection. The AAOS notes that an increased number of missions being conducted on foot in Afghanistan has led to an increase in this type of combat blast injury.

Changing levels of stiffness during bone healing is known as “dynamization.” During standard dynamization, bone is first held rigidly in place by a mechanical intervention, or fixation device. Once healing has begun, the stiff rigidity is loosened to allow movement. “An ‘external fixator’ is placed on the outside of the skin and usually has a ‘cross-bar’ that determines the level of rigidity and can be adjusted to allow more or less motion,” explains Evans, who is also the Maurice Edmond Mueller Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery at Harvard Medical School. Evans and his colleagues thought that how firmly or loosely injured bone is held together by mechanical interventions -casts, rods, plates and screws – could impact these large segmental bone defects, just as it does for more minor fractures — but with one big difference. The scientists changed stiffness levels in the opposite order — hence, “reverse dynamization.”

“Our laboratory has a lot of experience with a rat model of segmental defect healing, and we noticed that during the healing process, the defect first fills with cartilage, and then the cartilage turns to bone,” says Evans. Technically known as “endochondral ossification” this process is well documented to occur in fracture healing. ‘We knew from other previous work that the early formation of cartilage is helped when mechanical fixation is loose. We also knew that a subsequent increase in fixator stiffness would provide the rigidity needed for the ingrowth of blood vessels and other aspects of healing.” Evans and his coauthors hypothesized that a period of loose “fixation” followed by a period of stiffened “fixation” would accelerate healing of large segmental defects. “If bones are allowed to move slightly, cartilage will form in the defect,” he adds. “If the area is then held rigidly in place, the new cartilage will then turn to bone.”

The team constructed external fixators capable of providing varying degrees of stiffness during the healing process. By implanting a growth factor called bone morphogenetic protein-2 on a collagen sponge, the scientists initiated healing of segmental defects in the femurs of 60 rats. Groups of the animals were then allowed to heal with either low-, medium-, or high-stiffness fixators. Healing also took place under conditions of reverse dynamization, in which the stiffness levels were changed from low to high after a period of two weeks. After eight weeks, the researchers assessed healing using various measures including radiographs, microscopic analyses, and mechanical tests.

The investigators found that when they looked only at unchanging stiffness, the low-stiffness fixator produced the best healing; however, by comparison, the reverse dynamization provided considerable improvement, leading to a marked acceleration in the healing process by all tests. Also, notes Evans, the bone mineral content and bone area of the defects healed by reverse dynamization were closer to normal, and the healed bone had greater mechanical strength.

“Our study confirms the exquisite sensitivity of bone healing to its mechanical environment,” he notes. The next step, says Evans, will be to see if this therapy works in large animals, while also gathering more information about the biological mechanisms that are at play. But, he adds, moving these findings into a clinical setting should be relatively straightforward. “The nice thing about this approach is that it’s simple and could be rapidly translated to human use if our proposed large-animal studies are successful. The regulatory hurdles should be minor.” Furthermore, he adds, reverse dynamization might also be applicable to other situations for which bone healing is problematic. “Sometimes in smokers or individuals with diabetes, fractures heal poorly,” he notes, adding that the same can be true when an infection is present.

Reverse dynamization is also an attractive option in terms of cost. “Often, strategies devised in the lab to solve clinical problems are far too complex and expensive to be translated into meaningful clinical use,” notes study coauthor Mark Vrahas, MD, Chief of the Harvard Orthopaedic Trauma Service. “But if the promise of this strategy holds out, it will be inexpensive enough to be used even in developing countries, where the burden of severe injuries are particularly high.”

source : http://www.news-medical.net/news/20121122/New-approach-could-help-orthopaedic-surgeons-better-deal-with-battlefield-injuries.aspx

Full story

TomoMobile Radiation Therapy System on Wheels

TomoMobile Radiation Therapy System on Wheels

TomoMobile Radiation Therapy System on Wheels

We have two web sites that may be helpful to you.

TomoTherapy of Madison, WI, recently announced that the company has developed the world’s first mobile radiation therapy system to bring cancer treatment to places otherwise underserved or to help clinics provide service while undergoing remodeling or during a facility relocation. The first customer is Artesian Cancer Centers out of Oklahoma that will be using the TomoMobile™ system while their new building in Muskogee is being built.

The TomoTherapy treatment system is ideally suited for placement in a mobile or relocatable environment because of a relatively compact profile that integrates imaging and delivery systems into a single, enclosed unit. The ring gantry design of the TomoTherapy system offers the same look and similar footprint of traditional computed tomography (CT) scanners, which are often deployed as mobile units. In addition, because of the TomoTherapy unit’s standard integral primary beam stop and extensive radiation head shielding, radiation leakage is reduced so that the further shielding required in the trailer is transportable.

The TomoTherapy platform also includes a treatment planning system, CT-based image guidance with automatic registration, automated machine and patient quality assurance tools and two versatile radiation delivery modalities for treating common, complex and rare cancers throughout the body.

Source : http://www.tomotherapy.com/landing/landing.php?uri=news/view/2009_10_14_tomomobile_announcement/

Full story

New polymer nanoparticles can generate heat and kill colorectal cancer cells

New polymer nanoparticles can generate heat and kill colorectal cancer cells

Researchers at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center have modified electrically-conductive polymers, commonly used in solar energy applications, to develop revolutionary polymer nanoparticles (PNs) for a medical application. When the nanoparticles are exposed to infrared light, they generate heat that can be used to kill colorectal cancer cells.

The study was directed by Assistant Professor of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Nicole H. Levi-Polyachenko, Ph.D., and done in collaboration with colleagues at the Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials at Wake Forest University. This study was recently published online, ahead of print, in the journal, Macromolecular Bioscience (DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201200241).

Levi-Polyachenko and her team discovered a novel formulation that gives the polymers two important capabilities for medical applications: the polymers can be made into nanoparticles that are easily dispersed in water and generate a lot of heat when exposed to infrared light.

Results of this study showed that when colorectal cancer cells incubated with the PNs were exposed to five minutes of infrared light, the treatment killed up to 95 percent of cells. “The results of this study demonstrate how new medical advancements are being developed from materials science research,” said Levi-Polyachenko.

The team made polymer nanoparticles and showed that they could undergo repeated cycles of heating and cooling without affecting their heating ability. This offers advantages over metal nanoparticles, which can melt during photothermal treatments, leading to a loss of heating efficiency. This also allows for subsequent treatments to target cells that are resistant to heat-induced killing.

A challenge with other electrically-conductive polymers that have recently been explored for photothermal therapy is that these other polymers absorb across a wide range of infrared light. Christopher M. MacNeill, Ph.D., post-doctoral researcher at Wake Forest and first author on the paper, noted that, “we have specifically used electrically-conductive polymers designed to absorb a very narrow region of infrared light, and have also developed small, 50-65nm, polymer nanoparticles in order to optimize both biological transport as well as heat transfer.” For example, 50nm is about 2000 times smaller than a human hair.

In addition, the new PNs are organic and did not show any evidence of toxicity, alleviating concerns about the effect of nanoparticles that may potentially linger in the body.

“There is a lot more research that needs to be done so that these new nanoparticles can be used safely in patients,” Levi-Polyachenko cautioned, “but the field of electrically-conductive polymers is broad and offers many opportunities to develop safe, organic nanoparticles for generating heat locally in a tissue. We are very enthusiastic about future medical applications using these new nanoparticles, including an alternative approach for treating colorectal cancer.”

Source : http://www.news-medical.net/news/20121121/New-polymer-nanoparticles-can-generate-heat-and-kill-colorectal-cancer-cells.aspx

Full story

UNSW-developed nanoparticle could improve effectiveness of chemotherapy for neuroblastoma

UNSW-developed nanoparticle could improve effectiveness of chemotherapy for neuroblastoma

In a world-first, researchers from the Australian Centre for Nanomedicine at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in Sydney have developed a nanoparticle that could improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy for neuroblastoma by a factor of five.

Neuroblastoma is an aggressive childhood cancer that often leaves survivors with lingering health problems due to the high doses of chemotherapy drugs required for treatment. Anything that can potentially reduce these doses is considered an important development.

The UNSW researchers developed a non-toxic nanoparticle that can deliver and release nitric oxide (NO) to specific cancer cells in the body. The findings of their in vitro experiments have been published in the journal Chemical Communications.

“When we injected the chemo drug into the neuroblastoma cells that had been pre-treated with our new nitric oxide nanoparticle we needed only one-fifth the dose,” says co-author Dr Cyrille Boyer from the School of Chemical Engineering at UNSW.

“By increasing the effectiveness of these chemotherapy drugs by a factor of five, we could significantly decrease the detrimental side-effects to healthy cells and surrounding tissue.”

This synergistic effect between nitric oxide and chemotherapy drugs had previously been reported in other cancer cell lines, but the delivery compounds were potentially toxic and had very poor stability, or shelf life.

In contrast, the UNSW-developed nanoparticle is non-toxic and has a shelf life that has been extended from two days to more than two weeks: “Drug storage is critical and this is a substantial improvement over previous nitric oxide-carrier compounds,” says Boyer.

Nitric Oxide is an important cellular signalling molecule involved in many physical and mental processes, and deficiencies have been associated with heightened susceptibility to cancer, liver fibrosis, diabetes, cardiovascular illnesses and neurodegenerative diseases.

“If we can restore nitric oxide with these nanoparticles this could have implications for all the illnesses associated with NO deficiencies, including diabetes and neurodegenerative,” he says.

The key medical challenge, says Boyer, has been figuring out a way to deliver appropriate doses to specific sites within the body, without provoking an adverse reaction. The Australian Centre for Nanomedicine – which crosses science, engineering and medicine – is investigating multi-disciplinary solutions.

Boyer says that while biologists have experimented with nitric oxide, mixing it with cancer cells and observing the reactions, “no one has tried to develop a platform to specifically deliver nitric oxide – that is, where you want it, when you want it”.

The next step is to test the nanoparticle on other cell lines, such as lung and colon cancer cells, and to proceed to in vivo tests. The team also included researchers from the Children’s Cancer Institute Australia based at UNSW’s Lowy Cancer Research Centre.

Source : http://www.news-medical.net/news/20121121/UNSW-developed-nanoparticle-could-improve-effectiveness-of-chemotherapy-for-neuroblastoma.aspx!

Full story

New solar steam method from Rice University

New solar steam method from Rice University

Rice University scientists have unveiled a revolutionary new technology that uses nanoparticles to convert solar energy directly into steam. The new “solar steam” method from Rice’s Laboratory for Nanophotonics (LANP) is so effective it can even produce steam from icy cold water.

Details of the solar steam method were published online today in ACS Nano. The technology has an overall energy efficiency of 24 percent. Photovoltaic solar panels, by comparison, typically have an overall energy efficiency around 15 percent. However, the inventors of solar steam said they expect the first uses of the new technology will not be for electricity generation but rather for sanitation and water purification in developing countries.

“This is about a lot more than electricity,” said LANP Director Naomi Halas, the lead scientist on the project. “With this technology, we are beginning to think about solar thermal power in a completely different way.”

The efficiency of solar steam is due to the light-capturing nanoparticles that convert sunlight into heat. When submerged in water and exposed to sunlight, the particles heat up so quickly they instantly vaporize water and create steam. Halas said the solar steam’s overall energy efficiency can probably be increased as the technology is refined.

“We’re going from heating water on the macro scale to heating it at the nanoscale,” Halas said. “Our particles are very small — even smaller than a wavelength of light — which means they have an extremely small surface area to dissipate heat. This intense heating allows us to generate steam locally, right at the surface of the particle, and the idea of generating steam locally is really counterintuitive.”

To show just how counterintuitive, Rice graduate student Oara Neumann videotaped a solar steam demonstration in which a test tube of water containing light-activated nanoparticles was submerged into a bath of ice water. Using a lens to concentrate sunlight onto the near-freezing mixture in the tube, Neumann showed she could create steam from nearly frozen water.

Steam is one of the world’s most-used industrial fluids. About 90 percent of electricity is produced from steam, and steam is also used to sterilize medical waste and surgical instruments, to prepare food and to purify water.

Most industrial steam is produced in large boilers, and Halas said solar steam’s efficiency could allow steam to become economical on a much smaller scale.

People in developing countries will be among the first to see the benefits of solar steam. Rice engineering undergraduates have already created a solar steam-powered autoclave that’s capable of sterilizing medical and dental instruments at clinics that lack electricity. Halas also won a Grand Challenges grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to create an ultra-small-scale system for treating human waste in areas without sewer systems or electricity.

“Solar steam is remarkable because of its efficiency,” said Neumann, the lead co-author on the paper. “It does not require acres of mirrors or solar panels. In fact, the footprint can be very small. For example, the light window in our demonstration autoclave was just a few square centimeters.”

Another potential use could be in powering hybrid air-conditioning and heating systems that run off of sunlight during the day and electricity at night. Halas, Neumann and colleagues have also conducted distillation experiments and found that solar steam is about two-and-a-half times more efficient than existing distillation columns.

Halas, the Stanley C. Moore Professor in Electrical and Computer Engineering, professor of physics, professor of chemistry and professor of biomedical engineering, is one of the world’s most-cited chemists. Her lab specializes in creating and studying light-activated particles. One of her creations, gold nanoshells, is the subject of several clinical trials for cancer treatment.

For the cancer treatment technology and many other applications, Halas’ team chooses particles that interact with just a few wavelengths of light. For the solar steam project, Halas and Neumann set out to design a particle that would interact with the widest possible spectrum of sunlight energy. Their new nanoparticles are activated by both visible sunlight and shorter wavelengths that humans cannot see.

“We’re not changing any of the laws of thermodynamics,” Halas said. “We’re just boiling water in a radically different way.”

Source : http://www.news-medical.net/news/20121120/New-solar-steam-method-from-Rice-University.aspx

Full story

Addition of tomosynthesis to standard mammogram increases breast screening accuracy

Addition of tomosynthesis to standard mammogram increases breast screening accuracy

The addition of three-dimensional breast imaging-a technology called tomosynthesis-to standard digital mammography significantly increases radiologists’ diagnostic accuracy while reducing false positive recall rates, according to the results of a multi-center study published in Radiology.

“This is the first major advance in breast imaging and breast cancer screening since the development of breast MRI,” said lead researcher Elizabeth A. Rafferty, M.D., director of Breast Imaging at the Avon Comprehensive Breast Center at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. “The beauty of tomosynthesis is that it addresses two major concerns with screening mammography: missed cancers and false positive rates.”

According to the National Cancer Institute, there is convincing evidence that screening mammography reduces breast cancer mortality in women between the ages of 40 and 74. However, as many as 30 percent of breast cancers are not detected by mammography and an additional eight to 10 percent of women who undergo a screening mammogram are recalled for further testing when no cancer is present (called a false positive result).

Unlike a screening digital mammogram, which involves two X-ray images of each breast, breast tomosynthesis captures multiple, low-dose images from different angles around the breast. The images are then used to produce a three-dimensional reconstruction of the breast. Both digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis, which was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in February of 2011, can be performed on the same mammography equipment in rapid succession.

Dr. Rafferty’s study involved 1,192 women recruited from five sites, of whom 997, including 780 screening cases and 217 women who needed pre-biopsy breast imaging, had complete data sets. Each of the women underwent a standard digital mammogram followed by breast tomosynthesis. The total radiation dose for the combined procedure was less than 3 milligray, which is the FDA limit for a single mammogram.

Drawing from the eligible cases, the researchers then conducted two reader studies involving 312 and 310 cases, respectively. Twelve radiologists participated in the first reader study; 15 radiologists in the second. A total of 48 cancers were included in the first reader study; 51 cancers in the second.

Compared to digital mammography alone, the use of both standard mammogram and tomosynthesis resulted in increased diagnostic accuracy for all 27 radiologists. Additionally, the diagnostic sensitivity of the combined exam – or the rate at which cancer present in the breast was correctly identified – increased by 10.7 percent for radiologists in Reader Study 1 and 16 percent for radiologists in Reader Study 2.

“Almost all of the gains in diagnostic sensitivity with the combined modality were attributable to the improved detection and characterization of invasive cancers, which are the cancers we are most concerned about because of their potential to metastasize,” Dr. Rafferty said.

With the addition of breast tomosynthesis to standard digital mammography, false positive recall rates also significantly decreased for all 27 of the radiologists. Absolute recall rate reductions of 38.6 percent and 17.1 percent were seen in Reader Studies 1 and 2, respectively.

“In the clinical setting, we would expect that type of reduction in recall rate to translate into a substantial number of unnecessary diagnostic tests being avoided,” Dr. Rafferty said.

Source : http://www.news-medical.net/news/20121120/Addition-of-tomosynthesis-to-standard-mammogram-increases-breast-screening-accuracy.aspx

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

Full story

Page 1 of 1312345...10...Last »
Copyright © 2017 Medical Technology & Gadgets Blog MedicalBuy.net. All rights reserved.
Proudly powered by WordPress. Developed by Deluxe Themes