Posts Tagged ‘technique’

FDA clears Smiths Medical’s safety system for epidural anaesthesia injection

FDA clears Smiths Medical’s safety system for epidural anaesthesia injection

Smiths Medical, a leading global medical device manufacturer, today announced that its Portex® CorrectInject™ Safety System for administering neuraxial (spinal and epidural) medication received 510(k) clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

The CorrectInject™ Safety System is intended to enhance patient safety by helping to reduce the risk of tubing misconnections, while minimizing changes to clinical technique. Tubing misconnections often occur, as epidural, intravenous, enteral and other infusion lines look alike. The connectors of the CorrectInject™ Safety System are uniquely tapered and threaded to be intentionally incompatible with standard Luer connectors. The CorrectInject™ Safety System’s yellow components visually signify a neuraxial delivery route and are intended to prompt clinicians to check that the medication to be delivered is appropriate for the treatment location.

Professional associations and government agencies, including the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) in the UK, the World Health Organization and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations in the U.S. support the use of strategies and best practices to reduce this risk of medication administration errors, calling on product developers and manufacturers to produce connector systems dedicated for neuraxial (spinal and epidural) applications. The National Health Service (NHS) of the UK was the first government agency to adopt practices requiring the clinical use of dedicated neuraxial medication delivery systems. By April 1, 2013 all epidural, spinal (intrathecal) and regional anaesthesia infusions and boluses are to be performed with devices that use safer connectors that will not connect with intravenous Luer connectors or intravenous infusion spikes.

Smiths Medical President Srini Seshadri commented: “We are pleased to be able to offer a solution that help to reduce medication delivery errors during spinal and epidural anaesthesia administration. As a global leader of safety medical devices, it is our obligation to develop innovative medical products that not only help protect patients when they are most vulnerable but help to raise clinical standards of care.”

Care providers and providers of medical technologies recognize the potential of the CorrectInject™ Safety System. Earlier this year, the CorrectInject™ Safety System was showcased at the Premier Innovation Celebration, an annual conference highlighting breakthroughs in patient care where it received a Premier Innovation Award. Premier, a visionary group purchasing organization serving 2,500 U.S. hospitals and 80,000 healthcare sites, is dedicated to helping healthcare providers improve clinical and operational performance. One way that Premier does this is by collecting and analyzing clinical and financial data of its members to identify best practices and products that advance patient care by reducing costs, improving quality, and elevating safety to better manage risk. Premier provides a channel for suppliers of medical technology, products, and services to have their latest innovations reviewed and evaluated by committees of clinical and operational experts.

The Portex® CorrectInject™ Safety System for Epidural Anaesthesia Injection is the first of the line to be cleared for market release in the U.S. The CorrectInject™ Safety System for Spinal Anaesthesia Administration has been available in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia and countries in Asia since September 2011. Regionalized introductions of the CorrectInject™ Safety System, including a system for epidural infusion, will expand as country registrations and approvals are granted.

Product(s) described may not be licensed or available for sale in all countries.

Source : http://www.news-medical.net/news/20120921/FDA-clears-Smiths-Medicals-safety-system-for-epidural-anaesthesia-injection.aspx

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Hyperspectral Imaging Coming to Medical Applications

Hyperspectral Imaging Coming to Medical Applications

Hyperspectral Imaging Coming to Medical Applications

A powerful color-based imaging technique is making the jump from remote sensing to the operating room—and a team of scientists* at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have taken steps to ensure it performs as well when discerning oxygen-depleted tissues and cancer cells in the body as it does with oil spills in the ocean.

microarrayer

Microarrayer machines (A) now can mix colors and deposit them on microscope slides, which can be used to calibrate hyperspectral imagers (HSI) for use in medical applications. The finished slides can be custom-colored (B) to calibrate HSIs to find specific types of tumors or disease tissue. Close up, they resemble dot-matrix printwork (C).

Credit: Clarke/NIST

View hi-resolution image

The technique, called hyperspectral imaging (HSI), has frequently been used in satellites because of its superior ability to identify objects by color. While many other visual surveying methods can scan only for a single color, HSI is able to distinguish the full color spectrum in each pixel, which allows it to perceive the unique color “signatures” of individual objects. Well-calibrated HSI sensors have been able to discern problems from diseases in coral reefs to pollution in the atmosphere as determined by the distinct spectral signature at a location.

“Because diseased tissues and cells also have distinct spectra, scientists have been trying to use HSI for medical applications as well,” says NIST physicist Jeeseong Hwang. “But any time you tell a machine to scan for something, you need to be sure it is actually looking for what you want, and you have to make sure that the image analysis algorithm extracts the correct color information out of a complex multicolor data set. We decided to create a way to calibrate an HSI device and to test its algorithm as well.”

Matthew Clarke, a former National Research Council-supported postdoctoral fellow in Hwang’s group who is currently working in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., wrote new software for a device called a microarrayer, so named because it is capable of laying down hundreds of tiny sample droplets in specific places on a microscope slide’s surface. Normally a microarrayer creates DNA arrays for genetic research, but the team remade it into an artistic tool, programming it to select chemicals of different hues and lay them down on the slide’s surface.

The results, which look a bit like dot-matrix printing, can be used to calibrate medical HSI devices and image analysis algorithms. When combined with HSI in a medical imaging application, this effort could allow a surgeon to look for cells with a specific chemical makeup, as determined by the cells’ color.

“Scientists and engineers can create a custom slide with the exact colors representing the chemical makeup they want the HSI devices to detect,” Hwang says. “It could be a good way to make sure the HSI devices for medical imaging perform correctly so that surgeons are able to see all of a tumor or diseased tissue when operating on a patient.”

This project is part of a larger effort to evaluate and validate optical medical imaging devices, led by the NIST team members, David Allen, Maritoni Litorja, Antonio Possolo, Eric Shirley and Jeeseong Hwang. Hwang adds that the special issue** of Biomedical Optics Express in which the team’s findings appear is the output of a recent NIST-supported international workshop on the topic.

*M.L. Clarke, J.Y. Lee, D.V. Samarov, D.W. Allen, M. Litorja, R. Nossal and J. Hwang. Designing microarray phantoms for hyperspectral imaging validation. Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 3(6), pp. 1291-1299 (June 2012), doi: 10.1364/BOE.3.001300.

The design and fabrication of custom-tailored microarrays for use as phantoms in the characterization of hyperspectral imaging systems is described. Corresponding analysis methods for biologically relevant samples are also discussed. An image-based phantom design was used to program a microarrayer robot to print prescribed mixtures of dyes onto microscope slides. The resulting arrays were imaged by a hyperspectral imaging microscope. The shape of the spots results in significant scattering signals, which can be used to test image analysis algorithms. Separation of the scattering signals allowed elucidation of individual dye spectra. In addition, spectral fitting of the absorbance spectra of complex dye mixtures was performed in order to determine local dye concentrations. Such microarray phantoms provide a robust testing platform for comparisons of hyperspectral imaging acquisition and analysis methods.

Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a technique that analyzes a wide spectrum of light coming into a camera. Instead of assigning individual pixels to primary colors (usually red, green, and blue), the light coming into individual pixels is broken down into many more bands, providing more information of what’s being observed. Hyperspectral imaging has particularly been useful for satellites monitoring the environment on Earth, but now researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are working on bringing this technology to image the human body for disease.

Until now the problem has been calibrating an HSI device so that it spots the specific color signature of whatever is being looked for. The NIST team developed a method, which uses something called a microarrayer, to do this calibration by depositing substances that have the precise color they’re looking for and calibrating the HSI device against that.

More info from NIST’s press release:

“Because diseased tissues and cells also have distinct spectra, scientists have been trying to use HSI for medical applications as well,” says NIST physicist Jeeseong Hwang. “But any time you tell a machine to scan for something, you need to be sure it is actually looking for what you want, and you have to make sure that the image analysis algorithm extracts the correct color information out of a complex multicolor data set. We decided to create a way to calibrate an HSI device and to test its algorithm as well.”

Matthew Clarke, a former National Research Council-supported postdoctoral fellow in Hwang’s group who is currently working in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., wrote new software for a device called a microarrayer, so named because it is capable of laying down hundreds of tiny sample droplets in specific places on a microscope slide’s surface. Normally a microarrayer creates DNA arrays for genetic research, but the team remade it into an artistic tool, programming it to select chemicals of different hues and lay them down on the slide’s surface.

The results, which look a bit like dot-matrix printing, can be used to calibrate medical HSI devices and image analysis algorithms. When combined with HSI in a medical imaging application, this effort could allow a surgeon to look for cells with a specific chemical makeup, as determined by the cells’ color.

Source : http://www.nist.gov/pml/div682/hsi-061212.cfm

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Laser-Powered Microbots Gently Transport Live Cells

Laser-Powered Microbots Gently Transport Live Cells

Laser-Powered Microbots Gently Transport Live Cells

This project involves the manipulation and the assembly of micro-objects using optically controlled microrobots. Light patterns are used to control the movement of the microrobots. Objectives include the micro-assembly of objects, including live cells, and the parallel, independent control of multiple microrobots in one system.

The UH microrobot (visible in the top center of the image) was used to position these 100-µm-diameter glass beads to form “UH”.

Cell culturing devices

The cell culturing device project involves the trapping of cells in hydrogel scaffold in order to promote the cultivation of cells in 3D. Advances in cell culturing technology could lead to improved drug and therapy development, along with alternative ways to test live subjects. The project will also give a further insight into cell behavior, which could lead to the cure of various diseases.

For more information, see:

K. S. Ishii, W. Hu, S. A. Namekar, and A. T. Ohta, “An optically controlled 3D cell culturing system,” Advances in OptoElectronics, vol. 2011, Article ID 253989, 8 pages, 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/253989

Optoelectronic tweezers

Optoelectronic tweezers (OET) can be used to manipulate micro- and nano-scale particles, such as cells, carbon nanotubes, and nanowires. OET uses light-induced dielectrophoresis to enable this optically controlled manipulation. Dielectrophoresis is an electrokinetic force induced upon particles in a non-uniform electric field. OET integrates the flexibility and control of optical manipulation with the parallel manipulation and sorting capabilities of dielectrophoresis.

OET simulationElectric field profile of a circular OET particle trap.

We are exploring the use of optoelectronic tweezers for live / dead cell sorting for in vitro fertilization. A treatment available to men with sperm of limited mobility or viability is intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), where fertilization is achieved by injecting a single sperm directly into the oocyte (egg). Thus, the quality of the individual sperm that is selected is of paramount importance, and the challenge is how to distinguish viable from non-viable sperm. Current sperm viability assays are limited by subjectivity, sensitivity, and potential toxicity. Optoelectronic tweezers can non-invasively distinguish between live and dead cells and provide a means of sorting them. We have demonstrated the separation of live and dead sperm even in the absence of motility, as viable non-motile sperm are attracted to OET-induced electric fields, while non-viable sperm are repelled by the same electric fields. Thus, OET sorting is a potential method by which to identify viable non-motile sperm for assisted reproductive technologies.

We’re used to thinking of robots as mechanical entities, but at very small scales, it sometimes becomes easier to use existing structures (like microorganisms that respond to magnetic fields or even swarms of bacteria) instead of trying to design and construct one (or lots) of teeny tiny artificial machines. Aaron Ohta’s lab at the University of Hawaii at Manoa has come up with a novel new way of creating non-mechanical microbots quite literally out of thin air, using robots made of bubbles with engines made of lasers.

To get the bubble robots to move around in this saline solution, a 400 mW 980nm (that’s infrared) laser is shone through the bubble onto the heat-absorbing surface of the working area. The fluid that the bubbles are in tries to move from the hot area where the laser is pointing towards the colder side of the bubble, and this fluid flow pushes the bubble towards the hot area. Moving the laser to different sides of the bubble gives you complete 360 degree steering, and since the velocity of the bubble is proportional to the intensity of the laser, you can go as slow as you want or as fast as about 4 mm/s.

This level of control allows for very fine manipulation of small objects, and the picture below shows how a bubble robot has pushed glass beads around to form the letters “UH” (for University of Hawaii, of course):

Besides being able to create as many robots as you want of differing sizes out of absolutely nothing (robot construction just involves a fine-tipped syringe full of air), the laser-controlled bubbles have another big advantage over more common microbots in that it’s possible to control many different bubbles independently using separate lasers or light patterns from a digital projector. With magnetically steered microbots, they all like to go wherever the magnetic field points them as one big herd, but the bubbles don’t have that problem, since each just needs its own independent spot of light to follow around.

The researchers are currently investigating how to use teams of tiny bubbles to cooperatively transport and assemble microbeads into complex shapes, and they hope to eventually develop a system that can provide real-time autonomous control based on visual feedback. Eventually, it may be possible to conjure swarms of microscopic bubble robots out of nothing, set them to work building microstructures with an array of thermal lasers, and then when they’re finished, give each one a little pop to wipe it completely out of existence without any mess or fuss.

Cooperative Micromanipulation Using Optically Controlled Bubble Microrobots by Wenqi Hu, Kelly S. Ishii, and Aaron T. Ohta of the the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, was presented last week at the 2012 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation in St. Paul, Minn.

Source : http://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/industrial-robots/microbots-made-from-bubbles-and-lasers

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New SIDS Monitor Debuts

New SIDS Monitor Debuts

Snuza Halo provides a unique way to effectively monitor a sleeping infant to help reduce SIDS deaths.

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

(Free-Press-Release.com) August 16, 2011 — (West Hollywood, California) — In recent years the incidence of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) has been reducing, but it is still the leading cause of death for babies in their first year of life. Despite the overall reduction in SIDS, parents are still being cautious by turning to under-mattress movement monitoring devices on the market. These conventional devices have brought some comfort to parents but just not enough. The Snuza Halo is a small, light, portable device that provides a unique way to effectively monitor a sleeping infant.

How Does Snuza Halo Work?

The Snuza Halo monitors the baby’s movement by clipping, not to the crib mattress, but gently to the baby’s diaper near the stomach. This ultra sensitive motion detector monitors and recognizes the baby’s movement constantly. If the Snuza Halo does not sense movement within a 15 second time period, it does what you would do – try to stimulate your baby to breathe again. Snuza Halo does this by activating a pulsed vibration, which imitates a technique used by Hospital Neonatal Care Units worldwide called “Cutaneous Stimulation”. If movement is not sensed within a further 5 seconds of the vibration, an audible alarm is triggered to alert the parents to the problem.

“Many of the infant monitors currently on the market are large, complicated to set-up and have electrical cables or straps which babies may get tangled in,” explains Charlotte Wenham, a Registered Nurse and Business Manager for Pneo, makers of the Snuza Halo. “The Snuza is tiny yet extremely effective and poses no danger to the infant whatsoever.”

The Snuza Halo unit sells for $129, the new Snuza go! sells for $99.

It is available at several online retailers including: walgreens.com, cvs.com, babiesrus.com, babyuniverse.com, and more.

Though the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome has steadily decreased over the years, it is still the leading cause of death for infants aged 1 to 12 months. To provide an alternative to monitoring devices that are positioned underneath the infant’s mattress, Snuza (Cape Town, South Africa) has launched the Halo, a light (weighing approximately 30 g), portable device that monitors the infant’s movement with a sensitive motion detector.

An indicator light flashes green with each movement. If the baby doesn’t move within a 15-second interval, the battery-powered device activates a pulsed vibration to stimulate the infant’s breathing. This technique, known as “cutaneous stimulation,” is used at hospital neonatal care units worldwide. If no further movement is sensed 5 seconds following the cutaneous stimulation, the device emits an audible alarm.

From the announcement:vibvxeev New SIDS Monitor Debuts

“Many of the infant monitors currently on the market are large, complicated to set-up and have electrical cables or straps which babies may get tangled in,” explains Charlotte Wenham, a Registered Nurse and Business Manager for Pneo, makers of the Snuza Halo. “The Snuza is tiny yet extremely effective and poses no danger to the infant whatsoever.”

Source : http://www.free-press-release.com/news-technology-helps-protect-sleeping-infants-and-gives-parents-peace-of-mind-1313511935.html

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